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Aerolíneas_Argentinas (Argentina)

Aerolíneas Argentinas
IATA
AR[1]
ICAO
ARG
Callsign
ARGENTINA
Founded 14 May 1949 (1949-05-14) (64 years ago)
Commenced operations 7 December 1950 (1950-12-07)
Hubs
Secondary hubs
Focus cities
Frequent-flyer program Aerolíneas Plus
Airport lounge Salón Cóndor[2]
Alliance SkyTeam
Subsidiaries
Fleet size 37
Destinations 56
Company slogan Alta en el cielo
(English: Up high in the sky)
Parent company Argentine Government (99.4%)[3]
Headquarters Buenos Aires, Argentina
Key people
Revenue US$1,174.5 million (FY 2010) (incl. all subsidiaries)[7]
Net income US$486 million (FY 2010) (incl. all subsidiaries)[7]
Website www.aerolineas.com

Aerolíneas Argentinas (English: Argentine Airlines), formally Aerolíneas Argentinas S.A.,[8] is Argentina's largest airline and serves as the country's flag carrier.[6][9][10] Owned in its majority by the Argentine Government,[3] the airline is headquartered in the Torre Bouchard, located in San Nicolás, Buenos Aires.[4][8]

Aerolíneas Argentinas Cargo, domestic airline Austral Líneas Aéreas, ramp service provider Aerohandling, cargo division JetPaq S.A., and tourism operator Optar S.A. are listed as Aerolíneas Argentinas subsidiaries.[11] The airline and its subsidiaries operates from two hubs, both located in Buenos Aires.[1] Operations of domestic and regional flights by the smaller aircraft types in the fleet are concentrated at Aeroparque Jorge Newbery, which also serves as its operating base, whereas Ministro Pistarini International Airport is mainly used for international services,[12] although some regional and few domestic services are operated as well.[13] The company provides free-of-charge transportation to those passengers that need to change from one airport to the other.[14]

The carrier became the 18th SkyTeam member in late August 2012 (2012-08).

Contents

History [edit]

Early years to privatisation [edit]
Revenue Passenger-Kilometers, scheduled flights only, in millions
Year Traffic
1950 253
1955 353
1960 592
1965 948
1969 1615
1971 2069
1975 3441
1980 6927
1989 8254
2000 11111
Source:ICAO Digest of Statistics for 1950-55; IATA World Air Transport Statistics 1960-2000

The history of the airline can be traced back to 1929, when Compagnie Générale Aéropostale (Aéropostale) started airmail operations between Buenos Aires and Asunción, and it later expanded its network to cities located in the Patagonia.[15] Many Frenchmen pilots flew for this company in its beginnings, with Antoine de Saint-Exupéry being among them.[3] Argentine personnel occupied vacant posts left by the Frenchmen as they gradually withdrew from the airline,[15] and shortly after Aéropostale's Argentine subsidiary Aeroposta Argentina was formed. In 1947 this airline stepped into a mixed-stock company, in which the Government had a 20% stake and private investors held the balance.[15]

As Aeroposta expanded its network southwards and incorporated the Douglas DC-3 into its fleet, other three mixed-stock companies were present at that time: ALFA (Aviación del Litoral Fluvial Argentino) mainly operated flying boats northwards to the Mesopotamia, FAMA (Flota Aérea Mercante Argentina) operated overseas services with DC-4s as its mainstay equipment, and ZONDA (Zonas Oeste y Norte de Aerolíneas Argentinas) was mainly concerned with operations in the northwest region.[15] As these carriers started being unprofitable, all of them were amalgamated into a single state-owned company on 14 May 1949.[15][16][17] The state holding was officially rebranded as Aerolíneas Argentinas-Empresa del Estado, despite it was commonly known as Aerolíneas Argentinas, or simply Aerolíneas.[18] The four companies comprising the state holding ceased operations on 31 December 1949.[18]

Aerolíneas Argentinas started operations on its own on 7 December 1950.[19] In February 1950 (1950-02), almost ten months prior to the start of operations, five new Convairs were already acquired.[20] Key to the growth of the airline in the early years were Alfonso Aliaga García, and Dirk Wessel Van Layden a former pilot of the French carrier Aéropostale, who was influential in raising flying standards.

The DC-3 proved an invaluable asset for Aerolíneas Argentinas as for many other airlines worldwide. It enabled the company to fly to domestic destinations that had hitherto been unreachable, and to keep flying the FAMA international network. As early as 1950 the Douglas DC-6 was added to the fleet, and was used to launch a weekly Buenos AiresRio de JaneiroNatalDakarLisbonParisFrankfurt flight in late 1950.[21] Soon afterwards, Douglas DC-4s joined the fleet and services were inaugurated to Santiago de Chile, Lima, Santa Cruz, and São Paulo. By March 1953 (1953-03), the airline had a route network that was 35,000 miles (56,000 km) long, flown with DC-3s, DC-4s, DC-6s, Convair-Liner 240s and Short Sandringhams.[22]

The Comet had begun commercial jet services in the 1950s, and the carrier once again set the pace among the South American airlines, when Aerolíneas' president A. Cdre. Juan José Güiraldes persuaded Argentina's President Arturo Frondizi to buy six of them, becoming the first overseas airline in ordering the type.[16][23] Being the first jetliner flown by Aerolíneas and named Las Tres Marías, the first of them landed at Ezeiza Airport on 2 March 1959.[24][25][26] With these jets, Aerolíneas Argentinas kept a steady growth during the 1960s, opening routes to London, Paris, Rome, and Madrid. The 1960s also saw the incorporation of the Avro 748 short-haul turboprop airliner, that had its maiden flight with the company on 15 February 1962 between Buenos Aires and Punta del Este; Aerolíneas was actually the launch customer for this type of aircraft.[18][27] Likewise, the Caravelle first flew for the carrier on the Buenos AiresSantiago de Chile route on 1 April 1962.[18]

During the 1970s, the fleet saw the arrival of three aircraft types from Boeing: the 727s,[28] the 737s,[29] and the 747s.[30] The incorporation of the Fokker F-28 into the fleet in the mid-1970s prompted the withdrawal of the last HS-748s, making the company to be the first South American airline in operating an all-jet aircraft park.[31] Frankfurt, Madrid and Rome became the first destinations to be served with the brand new 747s, starting January 1977 (1977-01).[32]

The airline was assigned by law the monopoly of international operations from Argentina in 1971.[33] This meant no other Argentine airline was able to operate international flights, let alone the already created Austral. The carrier therefore became the flag carrier of the country. The same law also assigned Aerolíneas Argentinas a 50% of the domestic market share.[33]

During the Falklands War in 1982, and for a short period later as well, the company was banned from flying through British airspace. There used to be a flight from London-Gatwick to Argentina's capital; however, because of the ban passengers bound to Argentina had to change planes at Madrid-Barajas.[34]

Another milestone for the company took place in June 1980 (1980-06) with the first south polar scheduled service, linking Buenos Aires with Hong Kong via Auckland.[35]

Late in 1980 a second-hand Boeing 747SP was acquired from Braniff for US$51,000,000 ($142,103,796 in 2013).[36] Also in 1980, upon the acquisition of Austral by the Argentine government, both Aerolíneas Argentinas and Austral became government-owned, to the extent that some routes were simultaneously operated, even using similar equipment.

However, there existed a state of continuous tension over salary differences between both companies that eventually led the Aerolíneas Argentinas' pilots to a three-week-long strike that started on 1 July 1986.[37] During this strike, the government leased pilots from the Argentine Air Force to operate some aircraft. Other companies took advantage from this situation and gained the market share Aerolíneas Argentinas lost, as domestic routes were operated by Austral, LADE and LAPA, and the government temporarily authorised foreign carriers to exploit the company's international routes.[38]

Privatisation: 1990-2008 [edit]

The privatisation of the company started being considered under the government of Raúl Alfonsín, when SAS was proposed to become a 40% shareholder of the state company.[39][40][41] This was firmly resisted by the Peronist opposition.[42][43] On 27 December 1989 the next government authorised the privatisation of the airline. On 21 November 1990 a consortium led by Iberia and Austral's owner Cielos del Sur S.A. acquired a 85% stake in Aerolíneas Argentinas,[43][44] which became the first major Argentine company to be privatised during the first presidence of Carlos Menem. Paradoxically, one of the first actions taken by the new Peronist government was to privatise the carrier, after airily opposing to the privatisation propositions of its predecessor.[42][43] Despite the carrier being regarded as overstaffed and bureaucratic, it was debt-free at that time, having an average profitability of US$90 million a year.[43][45] The carrier actually had US$719,000,000 ($1,331,645,906 in 2013) in revenues on the year prior to privatisation.[44] It was not until 2009 that this privatisation process would be ruled as illegal.[42]

Austral's owner Cielos del Sur S.A. was sold to Iberia in March 1991 (1991-03), further increasing the Spanish flag's stake in the Argentine air market.[46] Aerolíneas Argentinas and Austral never merged throughout the private era, and remained as separate companies with the same shareholder. Iberia subsequently boosted its stake in the airline to 85% in April 1994 (1994-04) after a US$500,000,000 ($774,472,384 in 2013) cash injection.[43][47][48][49] Out of the remaining 15%, the Argentine Government held the 5% stake it was initially assigned, while 10% belonged to the employees.[50] Furthermore, at this stage the Argentine Government resigned to the voting privilege it had in the Directory of the airline.[43]

Position of the company upon the acquisition by Iberia and when it was sold in 2001
Item 1991 2001
Assets (without routes, brand, etc., US$ mil.) 636[43]-776[50] ?
Annual Balance (US$ mil.) 18 390
Debt (US$ mil.) 0 900[50]
Aircraft (owned/leased) 28[33]/1 1[33]/43
Flight simulators 3 2
Number of employees 10,372[51] 6,734[52]

Iberia was afterwards obliged by the European Commission to cut its stake in Aerolíneas Argentinas as a condition for receiving state aid.[47] It thence reduced its participation to 20%, transferring the remaining 65% to Interinvest/Andes holding, a consortium comprising the Spanish Government holding company (SEPI) the actual owner of Iberia before it was privatised in 2001 and banks Merrill Lynch and Bankers Trust, among others.[47][53] In July 1997 (1997-07) Iberia cut again its stake in Aerolíneas Argentinas from 20% to 10%, while American Airlines's parent company AMR acquired a 10% stake of Aerolineas Argentinas/Austral's major stockholder Interinvest, equivalent to a participation of 8.5% in both Argentine companies, with the commitment of finding investors for Aerolíneas Argentinas.[54][55][56] AMR's 8.5% operation was finally cleared by the United States Department of Justice in early July 1998.[47] By that time, the Argentine Government still owned a 5% stake in Aerolíneas Argentinas.[57] Less than two years later AMR stepped aside, as it made no offers for Aerolíneas Argentinas.[58] Plans for the employees to take an 85% stake in 2000 never materialised.[citation needed]

Allegations of corruption were made on the basis of the price paid by Iberia and the Spanish firm's ulterior conduct (including some convoluted lease-back operations), with the airline paying the price for its own purchase with its assets.[43] Subsequent management by American Airlines and SEPI drove Aerolíneas Argentinas into an almost terminal crisis in 2001.[45][59]

By the late 1990s, the airline was near bankruptcy; losses in 1999 were around US$240 million. The Spanish Government tried to sell its controlling share to American Airlines, but the offer was declined.[60]

In June 2001 (2001-06), the aftermath began after the airline filed for bankruptcy protection from creditors,[61] and went into administration;[62] the salaries were paid by the Argentine Government, instead of using money coming from the SEPI.[63] The payment of salaries for the upcoming months were suspended, as the mechanics union refused to accept the reorganisation plan raised by the SEPI to keep the company afloat.[64][65][66] Most of the international flights were halted.[50][67] After this, most of the fleet was grounded, and only 30% and 10% of domestic and international flights, respectively, were operating.[62] The crisis deepened when the daily flight to Madrid, and also the last connection with Europe, was also disrupted.[68]

Marsans group acquired a 92% stake through its subsidiary Air Comet from the SEPI in late 2001, and committed to inject US$50 million capital with the intention of resuming short as well as longhaul services.[62][69][70] The resumption of international flights started in early November 2001 (2001-11).[71]

After teetering on the brink of closure during most of 2001, combined with the adverse effects of the September 11 attacks on the airline industry and December 2001 (2001-12) Argentina's financial meltdown, Aerolíneas Argentinas was forced to close down international services for a few days during early 2002. However, US$50,000,000 ($63,820,537 in 2013) fresh capital was provided and the airline resumed services almost immediately. The private era's first profits were announced later that year.[72][73]

The carrier exited bankruptcy in January 2003 (2003-01) and emerged from administration a month later.[70][74]

Renationalisation: 2008-onwards [edit]

In May 2008 (2008-05), an agreement between the Argentine government and Grupo Marsans in which the latter would decrease its participation in the airline to 35% was announced; in reducing their holding, Marsans would make room for new private investors as well as for the government of Argentina to increase its stake in the airline from 5% to 20%.[75] Following this agreement,[76] the Argentine Government took the airline back into state control in July 2008 (2008-07) after acquiring 99.4% of the stake for an undisclosed price; the remaining 0.6% continued being owned by the company's employees.[3][77] The Act renationalising Aerolíneas Argentinas and its subsidiary Austral Líneas Aéreas was passed by the Chamber of Deputies in August 2008,[78] and became law in September 2008 (2008-09) following the 46-21 vote in the Argentine Senate.[79][80][81]

There were several disagreements regarding the deal between the government and Grupo Marsans;[82] they ended in a vote by both the lower and the upper houses of the Argentine congress in support of taking over the company and its subsidiaries,[83] when the Chamber of Deputies voted 152-84 in favor of the expropriation,[84] and the Senate approved the bill by a 42-20 vote.[85][86]

In November 2009 (2009-11), the last Boeing 737-200 flight was operated on a scheduled Buenos AiresCatamarcaLa RiojaBuenos Aires passenger service.[87]

In June 2010 (2010-06), Aerolíneas Argentinas revamped its image to give the airline a more modern appearance.[88][89] The new logo is a combination of light blue and grey colours.[90] Likewise, the previous eurowhite livery is replaced with a combination of the Argentine flag colours plus grey.[90] Subsidiary airline Austral also adopted this new livery, additionally including a red cheatline.[91]

With the mentoring of Delta Air Lines,[92] the company signed an agreement to begin the process of joining SkyTeam in late November 2010 (2010-11).[10][93][94] It became the first South American and the second Latin American carrier in joining the alliance in August 2012 (2012-08),[95][96] as well as its 18th overall member.[97]

In March 2011 (2011-03), the different unions that affiliate the airline staff demonstrated over concerns the government was looking for local private investors to participate in ownership of the company.[98][99][100] In September that year, the airline emerged from the reorganisation proceedings it had filed in 2001.[101] In late November 2011 (2011-11), the government announced an austerity plan for the company in order to reduce the deficit it has been incurring since being taken over from Marsans; the plan includes the revision of unprofitable routes, the reduction of pilot/aircraft pay rates, and the abandonment of obsolete equipment, among others.[102][103]

Destinations [edit]

Codeshare agreements [edit]

As of August 2012, the carrier has codeshare agreements with the following SkyTeam members:

  • Air France-KLM, on some European routes; these companies codeshares on Aerolíneas' services to Córdoba, Mendoza, Rosario, Asunción, and Montevideo.[104] Furthermore, mileage earned by cardholders of Aerolíneas Plus and Flying Blue frequent flyer programmes can be redeemed in either airline.[105]
  • China Southern Airlines[106]
  • Delta Air Lines, on the Buenos AiresAtlantaBuenos Aires route; Delta Air Lines, in turn, places its code on Buenos AiresMiamiBuenos Aires flights actually operated by Aerolíneas. The agreement also considers Aerolíneas codesharing Delta flights to/from Miami and Atlanta operated to various cities in the United States and Canada, while Delta does so on regional flights to/from Buenos Aires.[107][108]

Fleet [edit]

Recent developments [edit]

Aerolíneas Argentinas began modernising its fleet in 2009; early this year, the airline agreed to lease ten Boeing 737-700s and to purchase two more of these aircraft that would act as a replacement for the ageing Boeing 737-200s and MD-80s.[109] Along with the first leased ones, the two brand new aircraft which became the first ones acquired by the company in 17 years were incorporated into the fleet in mid-2009.[110][111] It was announced in October the same year that the carrier was looking for about six Boeing 737-800 aircraft, both to complement the 12 Boeing 737-700s and to replace the ageing Boeing 737-500s.[112] In late November 2010 (2010-11), the airline agreed to lease a further ten aircraft of the same model from ILFC,[113] which started being delivered in April 2011.[114]

Future plans [edit]

As of November 2012, the airline is considering both the Airbus A350-900 and the Boeing 787-9 as replacement aircraft for the long-haul fleet.[115] The incorporation of leased Airbus A330-200s in 2013 for serving routes to Bogotá, Cancún, Caracas and Miami is also planned, whereas an increased maximum takeoff weight version of the same type is also being considered to partly replace the A340 aircraft park by 2016.[116] There are also plans for the incorporation of additional Boeing 737-800s:[116] in April 2013 (2013-04), Air Lease Corporation announced the lease of six more of these aircraft to the company, with deliveries starting in November 2014 (2014-11).[117]

Current [edit]

Following is a table providing the composition of Aerolíneas Argentinas' fleet, as of April 2013.[118] Information concerning seat configuration is accurate for most of the fleet; nevertheless, on some equipment this information differs from the one shown below.[110][111]

Aerolíneas Argentinas Fleet
Aircraft In Fleet Orders Passengers Notes
C Y Total
Airbus A340-200 4 32 217 249[119]
Airbus A340-300 7 32 248 280[119]
30 260 290[120]
30 257 287[121]
Boeing 737-700 22 8 120 128[122]
Boeing 737-800 4 9 8 162 170[120]
Total 37 9

As of April 2013, the fleet age is 11.5 years.[118]

Retired [edit]

Aerolíneas Argentinas has also operated the following aircraft all through its history:[118]


Accidents and incidents [edit]

According to the Aviation Safety Network database, the last accident involving a company's aircraft that yielded fatalities was in 1970, as of October 2011; Aviation Safety Network records 43 accidents or incidents for Aerolíneas Argentinas since it started operations in 1950.[129] The company ranks among the safest airlines in the world.[130]

See also [edit]

Argentina portal
Companies portal
Aviation portal


References [edit]

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  2. ^ "Aerolineas Argentinas begins flights to the new terminal at Ezeiza" (Press release). Aerolíneas Argentinas. 12 July 2011. Archived from the original on 25 April 2012. Retrieved 15 September 2012. "Terminal C also has an exclusive VIP lounge, called Salon Condor, especially designed to meet the requirements determined by the Sky Team Alliance, of which Aerolineas Argentinas is becoming a member. The VIP salon will not only be used by Aerolineas Argentinas passengers but also by the passengers on all airlines in the alliance." 
  3. ^ a b c d Plummer, Robert (22 July 2008). "Argentine airline set for bumpy ride". BBC News. Archived from the original on 24 April 2012. Retrieved 24 April 2012. 
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  5. ^ Uphoff, Rainer (3 April 2012). "Aerolineas Argentinas to drop Auckland and Mexico City from network". Madrid: Flightglobal.com. Archived from the original on 4 August 2012. Retrieved 4 August 2012. 
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  8. ^ a b "Terms and conditions". Aerolíneas Argentinas. Archived from the original on 22 August 2012. Retrieved 22 August 2012. "Aerolíneas Argentinas S.A., with legal domicile in:547 Bouchard St. 9th Floor Zip Code: 1106 ABG - Buenos Aires - Argentina- Telephone Number 054-011-4130-3000" 
  9. ^ Yeo, Ghim-Lay (28 August 2012). "Aerolineas Argentinas to join SkyTeam tomorrow". Washington D.C.: Flightglobal.com. Archived from the original on 29 August 2012. Retrieved 29 August 2012. 
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  11. ^ Group Companies Retrieved 26 January 2011.
  12. ^ "Profile on Buenos Aires Ministro Pistarini Airport". Centre for Aviation. Archived from the original on 5 October 2012. Retrieved 5 October 2012. "Hosting regional and international passenger and cargo services for over 20 airlines, the airport is a hub for Aerolineas Argentinas." 
  13. ^ Sobie, Brendan (21 April 2010). "New life for Aerolineas Argentinas?". Flightglobal.com (Washington D.C.). Airline Business. Archived from the original on 24 April 2012. Retrieved 24 April 2012. 
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  16. ^ a b
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  19. ^ "World Airline Directory  Aerolineas Argentinas". Flight International: 48. 20 March 2001  26 March 2001. Archived from the original on 5 October 2012. Retrieved 5 October 2012. 
  20. ^ "Civil aviation news..." (PDF). Flight. 23 February 1950. Retrieved 31 January 2012. "The Argentine Ministry of Transport has purchased five new Convairs for use on the passenger services of Aerolineas Argentinas." 
  21. ^ "ArgentinaGermany again". Flight: 628. 28 December 1950. Archived from the original on 5 October 2012. Retrieved 5 October 2012. 
  22. ^ "The world's airlines  Aerolineas Argentinas". Flight: 310. 6 March 1953. Archived from the original on 2 August 2012. Retrieved 2 August 2012. 
  23. ^ "Brevities" (PDF). Flight: 199. 5 August 1960. Retrieved 27 January 2012. "Aerolineas took delivery of their sixth Comet 4 at Hatfield on July 25. The first overseas operator to buy Comets, their order is now complete." 
  24. ^ "Air commerce..." (pdf). Flight: 445. 27 March 1959. Retrieved 18 July 2011. "Mme. Elena Faggionato de Frondizi, wife of the Argentine President, unveils the name of Aerolineas Argentina's first Comet 4 "Las Tres Marias" at Ezeiza Airport, B.A., on March 7." 
  25. ^ "HATFIELD TO BUENOS AIRES BY COMET 4" (pdf). Flight: 15. 13 March 1959. Retrieved 18 July 2011. 
  26. ^ "SOUTH AMERICAN JET" (pdf). Flight: 477. 3 April 1959. Retrieved 4 May 2011. "From Buenos Aires, from the camera of George Errington of de Havilland, come the lower three pictures of the arrival there last month of the first Aerolineas Argentinas' Comet 4." 
  27. ^ "Air commerce" (pdf). Flight: 457. 14 September 1961. Retrieved 4 May 2011. "Aerolineas Argentinas is to be the first Avro 748 customer to take delivery." 
  28. ^ "Airliner market" (PDF). Flight International: 226. 28 January 1978. Retrieved 3 May 2011. "Aerolineas Argentinas has ordered three Boeing 727s..." 
  29. ^ "World airlines update". Flight International: 512. 17 October 1974. Retrieved 3 May 2011. "Aerolineas Argentinas has ordered three more 737-200s for delivery later this month and in November and December, bringing its fleet of the type to 12." 
  30. ^ "Airliner market". Flight International: 70. 8 July 1978. Retrieved 3 May 2011. "Aerolineas Argentinas has ordered three additional Boeing 747-200Bs, with an option on a fourth subject to satisfactory financing. The aircraft will be powered by Pratt & Whitney JT9D-7Qs. This commitment for 747s, together with the airline's earlier purchase of three 727s, is worth some $200 million." 
  31. ^ "Airliner market" (PDF). Flight International: 89. 23 January 1975. Archived from the original on 5 May 2012. Retrieved 5 May 2012. "Aerolineas Argentinas has taken delivery of the first two of three F.28-1000s. Its remaining HS.748s will now be disposed of. Aerolineas Argentinas will be the first all-jet operator in South America" 
  32. ^ "Airliner market" (PDF). Flight International: 103. 15 January 1977. Archived from the original on 3 May 2012. Retrieved 3 May 2012. "Aerolineas Argentinas inaugurated its first Boeing 747 services from Buenos Aires to Frankfurt, Rome and Madrid on January 5" 
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  34. ^ Aerolíneas Argentinas History
  35. ^ "Short hauls..." (PDF). Flight International: 83. 12 July 1980. Archived from the original on 3 May 2012. Retrieved 3 May 2012. "Aerolineas Argentinas on June 7 inaugurated its Buenos Aires-Auckland-Hong Kong polar route." 
  36. ^ "Airliner market" (PDF). Flight International: 55. 10 January 1981. Retrieved 2 February 2012. "Aerolineas Argentinas paid nearly $51 million for the almost-new Boeing 747SP purchased from Braniff last year." 
  37. ^ "AIR TRANSPORT  Argentine airlines face reorganisation" (pdf). Flight International (Buenos Aires): 7. 19 July 1986. Retrieved 5 August 2011. "Argentina's flag carrier, Aerolineas Argentinas, has dismissed all 561 of its pilots after they went on indefinite strike on July 1." 
  38. ^ Potenze, Pablo. "La gran huelga" [The large strike] (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 24 April 2012. Retrieved 18 June 2012. 
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  40. ^ "SAS plays dating game" (PDF). Flight International: 10. 27 August 1988. Archived from the original on 28 April 2012. Retrieved 28 April 2012. 
  41. ^ "SAS achète 40% de la Compagnie nationale argentine" [SAS to acquire 40% of the Argentine national carrier]. Le Monde (in French). 10 February 1988. Archived from the original on 28 April 2012. Retrieved 28 April 2012. 
  42. ^ a b c José Crettaz (2 March 2011). "Una empresa con historia peronista" [A company with a Peronist history]. La Nación (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 28 April 2012. Retrieved 28 April 2012. 
  43. ^ a b c d e f g h Mabel Thwaites Rey (3 June 2001). "Crónica de una década que dejó a Aerolíneas al borde de la quiebra" [Chronicle of a decade that left Aerolíneas on the brink of bankruptcy]. Clarín (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 25 April 2012. Retrieved 25 April 2012. 
  44. ^ a b Shirley Christian (23 November 1990). "Argentina Closes Sale Of Airline". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 28 April 2012. Retrieved 28 April 2012. 
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  47. ^ a b c d Ramon Lopez (15 July 1998). "American given all-clear to acquire stake in Aerolineas". Flightglobal.com (Washington D.C.). Flight International. Archived from the original on 28 April 2012. Retrieved 28 April 2012. 
  48. ^ "94 at a glance". Flightglobal.com. Airline Business. 1 February 1995. Archived from the original on 28 April 2012. Retrieved 28 April 2012. "An Argentine federal tribunal clears the way for Iberia's $500 million injection into flag carrier Aerolineas Argentinas, taking the Spanish flag's stake in the carrier up to 85 per cent." 
  49. ^ "Iberia controlará el 19% de Aerolíneas Argentinas en poder de Banesto y BCH" [Iberia will control the 19% stock of Aerolíneas Argentinas held by Banesto and BCH]. El País (in Spanish). 19 March 1994. Archived from the original on 28 April 2012. Retrieved 28 April 2012. 
  50. ^ a b c d "Aerolíneas suspendió los vuelos a los Estados Unidos, Oceanía y Brasil" [Aerolíneas suspended flights to the United States, Oceania and Brazil]. Clarín (in Spanish). 7 June 2001. Archived from the original on 28 April 2012. Retrieved 28 April 2012. 
  51. ^ a b c d e f g h i "World Airline Directory  Aerolineas Argentinas" (pdf). Flight International: 44. 27 March 1991  2 April 1991. Retrieved 27 March 2011. 
  52. ^ Cebrián Echarri, Belén (3 October 2001). "La SEPI adjudica Aerolíneas Argentinas al grupo turístico español Marsans" [The SEPI awards Aerolíneas Argentinas to the Spanish tourist operator Marsans]. El País (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 18 June 2012. Retrieved 18 June 2012. 
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External links [edit]


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