|This article needs additional citations for verification. (May 2009)|
|Dallas Love Field|
|USGS aerial photo as of February 19, 1995|
|FAA airport diagram|
|IATA: DAL ICAO: KDAL FAA LID: DAL|
|Operator||City of Dallas|
|Location||Dallas, Texas, USA|
|Focus city for||Southwest Airlines|
|Elevation AMSL||487 ft / 148 m|
|Statistics (2007, 2010)|
|Aircraft operations (2007)||247,235|
|Based aircraft (2007)||693|
|Source: Federal Aviation Administration|
Dallas Love Field (IATA: DAL, ICAO: KDAL, FAA LID: DAL) is a city-owned public-use airport located 6 miles (10 km, 5 nautical miles) northwest of the central business district of Dallas, Texas, United States.
Love Field was Dallas' primary scheduled airline service facility until 1974 when Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport (DFW) opened.
As of March 2012, Love Field is served by Southwest Airlines, United Express, Delta Connection, and SeaPort Airlines. Southwest Airlines maintains its corporate headquarters at Love Field, and Dallas is a major focus city for the airline. Also, seven full service fixed base operators (FBOs) at Love Field provide general aviation services including fuel, maintenance, hangar rentals, and charters. Some also provide executive class amenities such as meeting rooms, car rentals, limousine service and restaurants.
Love Field was one of thirty-two Air Service training camps established by the Army after the United States entry into World War I in April 1917.  It was opened as a primry pilot training field on October 19, 1917, constructed just southeast of Bachman Lake. It was named after First Lieutenant Moss Lee Love, of the U.S. Army 11th Cavalry, who died in an airplane crash near San Diego, California on 4 September 1913, becoming the 10th fatality in U.S. army aviation history. His Wright Model C biplane crashed during practice for his Military Aviator Test. On 19 October 1917, the newly-opened Dallas Love Field was named in his honor. Joe Baugher lists the fatal aircraft accident for this date as being Burgess Model J, Signal Corps 18, which dove into the ground killing its pilot.
During World War II the airport was used by the United States Army Air Forces for training, with the Dallas Texas Aviation School providing basic (level 1) flight training, equipped with Fairchild PT-19s as the primary trainer used. Also had several PT-17 Stearmans and a few P-40 Warhawks assigned. Love Field was also used by the San Antonio Air Service Command for aircraft overhauls and by Air Transport Command as a ferrying airfield. The ATC 5th Ferrying Group, consisting of Women's Auxiliary Ferrying Squadrons (WAFS) ferried PT-17s, AT-6s and twin-engine Cessna AT-17s.
On March 9, 1947 Love Field's Lemmon Avenue Terminal Building opened on the east side of the airfield. The city adopted an amended Master Plan for Love Field in 1948 guiding future expansion.
On November 29, 1949 American Airlines Flight 157, a Douglas DC-6 en route from New York City to Dallas and Mexico City with 46 passengers and crew, slid off Runway 36 after the flight crew lost control on final approach. The airliner struck a parked airplane, a hangar, and a flight school before crashing into a business across from the airport,[N 1] killing 28. This was the deadliest air disaster in Texas history at the time and, according to modern reference sources, remains the deadliest crash to take place at the airfield itself.
On June 1, 1954 the east/west Runway 7/25 was closed; it was later removed to accommodate new terminal construction. Love Field then had two runways: Runway 13/31, the longer primary runway, and the shorter Runway 18/36.
The April 1957 Official Airline Guide shows 52 weekday departures on Braniff, 45 on American, 25 Delta, 21 Trans-Texas, 12 Central and 9 Continental.
Love Field's new terminal (the third and current terminal, designed by Donald S. Nelson) opened to the airlines on January 20, 1958 with three one-story concourses, 26 ramp-level gates and the world's first airport moving walkways. Airlines serving the airport at the time included American, Braniff, Central (which was based in Fort Worth), Continental, Delta and Trans Texas (later Texas International).
Turbine-powered flights began on April 1, 1959 when Continental Airlines introduced the Vickers Viscount turboprop. Jet airline flights began on July 12, 1959 when American Airlines started Boeing 707 flights to New York.
The 1960s brought tremendous growth to Love Field. In 1961 Mr. and Mrs. Earle Wyatt made a gift of a large bronze statue bearing the inscription "One Riot, One Ranger" for display in the airport's new terminal. Famed Texas born sculptress Waldine Tauch created the piece. The inscription refers to an incident in which a single Texas Ranger was dispatched to quell a riot. Beginning October 2010, the "One Riot, One Ranger" statue was temporarily moved for display to the nearby Frontiers of Flight Museum, until completion of the first phase of airport terminal renovation in early 2013.
On November 22, 1963 President John F. Kennedy arrived at Love Field on Air Force One, and was assassinated in Dealey Plaza while his motorcade was traveling from Love Field to the Dallas Trade Mart. Hours later, Lyndon B. Johnson was sworn in as president aboard Air Force One before its departure from Love Field.
On April 2, 1965 the 8,800 ft (2,682 m) long parallel Runway 13R/31L was opened to relieve traffic on Runway 13/31 (which was renamed Runway 13L/31R). The project had been vexed by legal wrangling; safety concerns were raised regarding its proximity to schools and its minimal safety areas, while nearby residents attempted to stop the anticipated increase in jet noise and the removal of homes and businesses adjacent to the airport to accommodate the project.
Several terminal expansion programs were fueled by the boom in air travel during the 1960s. American Airlines expanded their concourse in 1968. In the same year, Braniff opened its "Terminal of the Future." The expansion, showcasing Alexander Girard, Herman Miller and Ray and Charles Eames designs, featured the first rotunda concourse, jet bridges and several airport innovations. Braniff connected their new terminal to new remote parking lots with the Jetrail monorail system in 1970. Texas International expanded their concourse in 1969, and Delta's concourse was expanded in 1970.
In 1972 Love Field was the site of a notable hijacking incident. On 12 January, Billy Gene Hurst, Jr., a resident of Houston, Texas, hijacked Braniff Flight 38, a Boeing 727 airliner, as it departed William P. Hobby Airport in Houston bound for Dallas. After the plane landed at Love Field, Hurst allowed all 94 passengers to deplane, but continued to hold the 7 crewmembers hostage. Hurst insisted on flying to South America and made a variety of other demands, including food, cigarettes, parachutes, jungle survival gear, US $2 million, and a handgun. After a 6-hour standoff, police gave Hurst a package containing parachutes and some other items, and the hostages escaped while he was distracted examining the package's contents. Police officers stormed the craft soon afterwards and arrested him without serious incident. He was later sentenced to 20 years in prison.
With the need for a larger airport, the cities of Dallas and Fort Worth agreed to build Dallas/Fort Worth Regional Airport (the original name of the current Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport). It was agreed that to protect the new airport, each city would restrict its own passenger-service airports from air-carrier operations.
Southwest Airlines, founded in 1971 and headquartered at Love Field, built its business on selling quick, no-frills trips between Dallas, Houston, and San Antonio. The company felt that the notion of a quick trip would be destroyed by a long drive to the new large airport outside of the city. Prior to the opening of DFW, Southwest Airlines sued for the right to remain at Love Field.
In 1973 the courts ruled that the City of Dallas could not restrict Southwest Airlines from operating out of Love Field, so long as it remained open as an airport. This ruling effectively granted Southwest the right to continue to operate its existing intrastate service out of Love Field. The airlines operating from Love Field at the time DFW was conceived executed agreements with DFW stipulating that no airline could operate at the new airport if it continued to operate any flights out of Love Field. Southwest, created after the other carriers had signed on to the DFW operating agreements, was not a signatory and remained as the only airline operating at Love Field.
1973 saw Love Field, which had more than 70 gates and saw frequent Boeing 747 service, reach record enplanements at 6,668,398 as the eighth busiest airport in the United States. On January 13, 1974 DFW Airport opened, ending most passenger service at Love Field.
With the drastic reduction in flights and only 467,212 enplanements in 1975, Love Field decommissioned several of its concourses. The city of Dallas attempted to make use of these dormant facilities by leasing some of them to an entrepreneur who opened the "Llove Entertainment Complex" in November 1975. The main lobby at the front of a former terminal was transformed into movie theaters, ice rink, roller rink, huge video arcades, restaurants and bowling alley. Llove seemed especially suited for the pre-teen and teen crowd, who could spend the day for a single admission charge of about $3.50. Llove closed in May 1978. Several of the concourses were remodeled into support and training buildings for Southwest Airlines.
After deregulation of the U.S. airline industry in 1978, Southwest Airlines was able to enter the larger passenger markets and announced plans to start providing interstate service in 1979. This angered the City of Fort Worth and DFW International Airport, which resented expanded air service at Love Field. Therefore, Fort Worth-based U.S. Representative (later Speaker of the House) Jim Wright helped get a "compromise" law through Congress that restricted air service at Love Field. Using the pretext of protecting DFW, the Wright Amendment restricted passenger air traffic out of Love Field in the following ways: Passenger service on regular mid-sized and large aircraft could only be provided from Love Field to locations within Texas and the four neighboring states (Louisiana, Arkansas, Oklahoma, and New Mexico). Long-haul service to other states was possible, but only on commuter aircraft with no more capacity than 56 passengers.
While the Wright Amendment prevented any other major airlines from starting service out of Love Field, it did not deter Southwest. Based on short trips to begin with, Southwest continued to flourish as it used multiple shorthaul flights to build its Love Field operation. Some people managed to "work the system" and get around the Wright Amendment's restrictions. For example, a person could fly from Dallas to Houston or Albuquerque, change planes, and then fly to any city Southwest served although he or she had, at the time, to do so on two tickets in each direction, since the Wright Amendment specifically barred airlines from issuing tickets that violated the law's provisions. This work around was also problematic due to the fact that between flights checked baggage had to be collected and checked onto the next flight. This had the effect of creating mini-hubs at Houston/Hobby Airport and the Albuquerque International Sunport. Southwest continued to grow and became one of the most successful and profitable airlines in the United States.
Due to the success of Southwest Airlines, other airlines began considering the use of Love Field for short haul trips. Southwest co-founder Lamar Muse started Muse Air, a short haul competitor using DC-9s and MD-80s between Love Field and Houston in 1982. Muse Air was unable to operate profitably against Southwest at Love Field, and was purchased by Southwest in 1985 and renamed TranStar Airlines. Southwest ceased Transtar operations in 1987. Continental Airlines expressed its intent to fly out of Love Field in 1985, which led to years of court battles over the interpretation of the Wright Amendment as Fort Worth and DFW International Airport continued to try to prevent expansion at Love Field. Seeing the benefit of increased air traffic at Love Field, the City of Dallas began to actively lobby for the repeal of the Wright Amendment restrictions in 1992. In 1997, the Shelby Amendment successfully passed through Congress, which amended the Wright Amendment. A compromise of sorts, the Shelby Amendment allowed Love Field flights to three more states, Kansas, Mississippi, and Alabama. In addition, it amended the definition of 56-passenger jets that could fly to other states to include any aircraft weighing less than 300,000 pounds which has been reconfigured to accommodate 56 or fewer passengers.
The passage of the Shelby Amendment caused several airlines to consider flying 56-passenger jets out of Love Field, including Continental, Delta, and a new airline, Legend. The City of Fort Worth immediately sued the City of Dallas to try to prevent the Shelby Amendment from going into effect. American, headquartered at DFW, joined the lawsuits against Dallas, but also said that if other airlines were allowed to fly out of Love Field, it would have no choice but to offer competing service. In 1998, after a year of legal decisions and appeals, Continental Express became the first major airline other than Southwest to fly out of Love Field since 1974. American began service out of Love Field shortly thereafter, but continued to sue to stop the service. Fort Worth and American Airlines eventually sued the DOT to stop allowing more flights out of Love Field.
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In 2000, several federal appeals court decisions finally struck down all lawsuits against the Shelby Amendment. Fort Worth and American Airlines appealed to the U.S. Supreme Court, which refused to review the case. These legal decisions opened the door to increased long haul flights out of Love Field using 56-passenger jets, including new service by Delta and Legend. The majority of this 56-passenger jet market was composed of business travelers making day trips to other cities.
In 2001, the September 11, 2001, attacks and the subsequent recession greatly reduced the demand for air travel in the U.S., especially within the business traveler market. As a result, most of the airlines providing long haul 56-passenger flights stopped service and pulled out of Love Field. By 2003, Southwest and Continental Express were the only two major commercial airlines operating out of Love Field. However, due to Southwest's success and the possibility of other airlines returning in the future, the airport has completed an expansion of its parking facilities and is redeveloping one of its terminals.
New parking facilities in a 2,400-space garage opened in 2002 and 2003, connected to the terminal with a climate controlled walkway. The East Concourse, formerly Braniff's "Terminal of the Future," was demolished as part of the Love Field Master Plan.
Love Field celebrated 85 years in the aviation industry in 2002 and was designated as a Texas State Historical Site in 2003.
The Frontiers of Flight Museum, which had been located inside the airport terminal since 1988, moved to the north side of the airport in a separate facility.
In November 2004, at a breakfast sponsored by the North Dallas Chamber of Commerce, Southwest announced their active opposition to the Wright Amendment, claiming that the law is anti-competitive and outdated. On November 30, 2005, Missouri was added to the list of states exempted from the Wright Amendment by an amendment written by Sen. Kit Bond. Southwest began nonstop flights to Kansas City and St. Louis on December 13. American Airlines and American Eagle began flights from Love to St. Louis, Kansas City, Austin, and San Antonio on March 2, 2006, although American Airlines subsequently pulled out of the market, leaving American Eagle to offer a reduced service to Austin and Kansas City alone. In 2008, American decided to terminate the Austin and Kansas City service and replace it with service to O'Hare International Airport (which Southwest does not serve) using 50-passenger regional jets in compliance with the Wright provisions regarding aircraft size, although American Eagle recently stopped service from Love field altogether.
On June 15, 2006, it was announced that American Airlines, Southwest Airlines, Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport and the cities of Dallas and Fort Worth had all agreed to seek full repeal of the Wright Amendment, with several conditions. Among them: the ban on nonstop flights outside the Wright zone would stay in place until 2014; through-ticketing to domestic airports (connecting flights to long-haul destinations) would be allowed immediately; Love Field's maximum gate capacity would be lowered from 32 to 20 gates; and Love Field would handle only domestic flights non-stop. Southwest will be able to operate from 16 gates, American 2 gates, and Continental 2 gates. JetBlue and Northwest Airlines have claimed that the gate cap will effectively bar any airlines not named in the compromise to ever operate from Love Field, even though the agreement calls for Southwest, American and Continental to share gates with new airlines that desire to serve the airport. The cap of 20 gates would effectively restrict the purpose of the 2014 lifting of the ban on nonstop flights outside the Wright zone.
After extensive negotiations with the House and Senate Judiciary Committees, the compromise bill passed both Houses of Congress on Friday, September 29, just before the 109th Congress adjourned for the November elections. Senator Kay Bailey Hutchison led the effort to pass the bill in the Senate while Rep. Kay Granger led a bipartisan Texas House coalition to see the bill through to a successful conclusion in the House. President George W. Bush signed the bill into law on October 13, 2006. Southwest and American Airlines then required approval from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to begin one-stop flights from Love Field to destinations outside the Wright limits.
On October 17, 2006, Southwest Airlines announced that it would begin one-stop or connecting service between Love Field and 25 destinations outside the Wright zone on October 19, 2006. American Airlines made travel between Love Field and locations outside the Wright zone available by October 18, 2006.
In 2008 the airport handled 8,060,792 passengers.
The airport became embroiled in a controversy over concessions contracts when Dallas mayor Tom Leppert, during a March 3, 2010, City Council meeting, abruptly withdrew support for no-bid contracts with current airport food vendor Star Concessions Ltd. and newspaper and book vendor Hudson Retail Dallas, insisting that the contracts should be opened to public bidding instead. At a February 22, 2010, meeting, the City Council recommended that the existing contracts, set to expire in June 2011, be extended until 2026 with an additional three-year option and exclusive rights to 54 percent of vending space in a new terminal scheduled to open in 2014. After several abortive attempts to resolve the issue, the City Council voted on August 18, 2010, to open all concessions space in the new terminal for public bidding; city staff would attempt to reach a deal with Star and Hudson to operate existing concessions space from 2011 to 2014, otherwise it would also be opened for public bidding.
At 3:25 PM on August 19, 2010, an hour-long police chase ended at Love Field when Dallas police vehicles rammed a truck driven by carjacking suspect Michael Browne, who had driven through an airport perimeter fence and onto an active runway in an attempt to evade pursuing officers. Flight operations were briefly disrupted but no aircraft were directly endangered. Transportation Security Administration officials announced that a review of airport security measures would be conducted due to the incident.
In early 2009 a plan to modernize Love Field was announced. The $519 million master plan will replace the existing terminals with a new 20-gate concourse and expanded baggage facilities. The project is scheduled to open when the last of the Wright amendment restrictions end in 2014. The project also calls for a $250 million people mover system to connect to Dallas Area Rapid Transit's Burbank Station.
For the 12-month period ending October 31, 2007, the airport had 247,235 aircraft operations, an average of 677 per day: 39% general aviation, 37% scheduled commercial, 23% air taxi and 1% military. At that time there were 693 aircraft based at this airport: 3% single-engine, 4% multi-engine, 93% jet and 1% helicopter.
The City of Dallas Aviation Administration headquarters is on the grounds of the airport.
Love Field's passenger terminals have 19 gates, divided into two terminals: 1 and 2. Terminal 1 (United & Delta) has four gates: 2932 (Terminal 1 will close in October 2014). Terminal 2 (Southwest) has 15 gates: 112, 14, 15 (Gates 5-15 are now Closed) & Gates 2-4 have been renumbered as Gates 42-44. North Concourse (Southwest) Gates 1-11 opened on April 16, 2013 (Gate 12 will open July 2013). Eight additional North Concourse Gates to open in October 2014.
|Delta Connection operated by ExpressJet||Atlanta||1|
|SeaPort Airlines||El Dorado, Hot Springs||1|
|Southwest Airlines||Albuquerque, Amarillo, Austin, Birmingham (AL), Branson, El Paso, Harlingen, Houston-Hobby, Kansas City, Little Rock, Lubbock, Midland/Odessa, New Orleans, Oklahoma City, St. Louis, San Antonio, Tulsa, Wichita (begins June 2, 2013)||2 & North Concourse|
|United Express operated by ExpressJet Airlines||Houston-Intercontinental||1|
|United Express operated by SkyWest Airlines||Houston-Intercontinental||1|
|1||Houston (Hobby), TX||604,000||Southwest|
|2||San Antonio, TX||327,000||Southwest|
|4||Kansas City, MO||230,000||Southwest|
|5||St. Louis, MO||219,000||Southwest|
|6||New Orleans, LA||204,000||Southwest|
|10||El Paso, TX||134,000||Southwest|
The terminal was built by Legend Airlines and was later used by Legend Airlines and Delta Connection/Atlantic Southeast Airlines. Under the terms of lifting the Wright Amendment, the number of gates at the airport is limited thus effectively precluding use of the terminal for scheduled passenger flights. The gates of the former terminal were demolished and the remaining structure converted into a U.S. Customs and Border Protection facility.
Several airlines have served Love Field in the past including: American Airlines, American Freighter, Braniff International Airways, Capital Airlines, Continental Airlines (now United), Delta Air Lines, Eastern Air Lines, Legend Airlines, Ozark Air Lines, Saturn Airways, Slick Airways, Southern Air Transport, Trans-Texas Airways and more.
Currently, DART bus 39 (to downtown Dallas) serves the airport.
The Green Line light rail serves the airport at Inwood/Love Field Station, which opened in 2010. Passengers must use the bus from route 39 in order to travel between Love Field and the Inwood/Love Field Station. When terminal reconstruction is complete, a people mover system will directly link the terminal to DART's Burbank Station.
Love Field is also home to a number of charter flight companies and FBOs including:
The following occurred at the airfield itself, immediately after takeoff, during the final landing approach, and/or during an attempted go-around:
The following did not occur near the airfield itself but involved flights originating from or bound for Love Field:
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