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Airport Honolulu (USA) - International

Honolulu International Airport
IATA: HNL ICAO: PHNL FAA LID: HNL
Summary
Airport type Public / Military
Owner State of Hawaii
Operator Department of Transportation
Serves Island of O'ahu
Location Honolulu, Hawaii, USA
Hub for
Focus city for Allegiant Air
Elevation AMSL 13 ft / 4 m
Coordinates 211907N 1575521W / 21.31861N 157.92250W / 21.31861; -157.92250Coordinates: 211907N 1575521W / 21.31861N 157.92250W / 21.31861; -157.92250
Website hawaii.gov/hnl
Map
HNL
Location within Hawaii
Runways
Direction Length Surface
ft m
4L/22R 6,952 2,119 Asphalt
4R/22L 9,000 2,743 Asphalt
4W/22W 3,000 914 Water
8L/26R 12,300 3,749 Asphalt
8R/26L 12,000 3,658 Asphalt
8W/26W 5,000 1,524 Water
Statistics (2011)
Aircraft operations 262,716
Total passengers 17,947,177
Total cargo (metric tonnes) 327,331
Sources: ACI[1]

Honolulu International Airport (IATA: HNLICAO: PHNLFAA LID: HNL) is the principal aviation gateway of the City & County of Honolulu and the State of Hawaii and is identified as one of the busiest airports in the United States, with traffic now exceeding 21 million passengers a year and rising.[2]

It is located in the Honolulu census-designated place three miles (5 km) northwest of Oahu's central business district.[3][4] Main roads leading to the airport are Nimitz Highway and the Queen Liliuokalani Freeway of Interstate H-1.

Honolulu International Airport serves as the principal hub of Hawaiian Airlines, the largest Hawaii-based airline. Hawaiian offers flights between the various airports of the Hawaiian Islands and also serves the continental United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Samoa, Tahiti, Philippines, Japan, and South Korea. It is host to major United States and international airlines, with direct flights to American, Asian, and Pacific Rim destinations. In addition to not only serving most major western cities, and many smaller ones especially in California, recent announcements have revealed new routes on the East Coast to both New York-JFK, and Washington-Dulles joining the already established routes to Atlanta-Hartsfield and Newark-Liberty.

It is also the base for Aloha Air Cargo, which previously offered both passenger and cargo services under the name Aloha Airlines. This airline ceased passenger flights on March 31, 2008 and sold off its cargo services to Seattle-based Saltchuk Resources, Inc (also owners of inter-island sea-based shipping company Young Brothers and Hawaiian Tug & Barge.)

In 2011, the airport handled 17,947,177 passengers, 262,716 aircraft movements and processed 327,331 metric tonnes of cargo.[1]

Contents

History

HNL opened in March 1927 as John Rodgers Airport, named after World War I naval officer John Rodgers.[5] It was funded by the territorial legislature and the Chamber of Commerce, and was the first full airport in Hawaii: aircraft had previously been limited to small landing strips, fields or seaplane docks. From 1939 to 1943, the adjacent Keehi Lagoon was dredged for use by seaplanes, and the dredged soil was moved to HNL to provide more space for conventional airplanes.[citation needed]

The U.S. military grounded all civil aircraft and took over all civil airports after the attack on Pearl Harbor, and Rodgers Field was designated Naval Air Station Honolulu. The Navy built a control tower and terminal building, and some commercial traffic was allowed during daylight hours. Rodgers Field was returned to the Territory of Hawaii in 1946. At the time, at 4,019 acres (16.26 km2), it was one of the largest airports in the United States, with four paved land runways and three seaplane runways.[5]

John Rodgers Airport was renamed Honolulu Airport in 1947; "International" was added to the name in 1951.[5] Being near the center of the Pacific Ocean it was a stop for most transpacific flights. By 1950 it was the third-busiest airport in the United States in terms of aircraft operations, and its 13,097-foot (3,992 m) runway was the longest in the world in 1953.[5] In summer 1959 Qantas began the first jet service to Honolulu on its flights between Australia and California.[6] Aeronautical engineer and airline consultant, Frank Der Yuen, advised in the design of the original building and founded its aerospace museum.[7]

The original terminal building on the southeast side of runways 4 was replaced by the John Rodgers Terminal, which was dedicated on August 22, 1962 and opened on October 14, 1962.[5] This terminal expanded several times with the addition of the Diamond Head Concourse in 1970, the Ewa Concourse in 1972 and the Central Concourse in 1980.[8]

With the advent of long range aircraft most transpacific flights no longer need to stop at Honolulu. Its international passenger traffic has decreased over the years, particularly to Australia, the South Pacific and southeast Asia, but Honolulu has continued growth in the domestic market as major airlines have added non-stop links to new cities such as Phoenix, Newark, Denver and Atlanta.[citation needed]

Modernization

On March 24, 2006 Hawaii Governor Linda Lingle unveiled a $2.3 billion modernization program for Hawaii airports over a 12-year period, with $1.7 billion budgeted for Honolulu International Airport.[9] The plan involves implementing short-term projects within the first five years to improve passenger service and increase security and operational efficiencies.[10]

As part of the modernization, flight display monitors throughout the airport have been upgraded, new food and beverage vendors have been added, and a new parking garage across from the International Arrivals terminal has been completed. Current projects include an international arrivals corridor with moving sidewalks built atop the breezeway leading to the Ewa Concourse. The first phase of the project was completed in October 2009, with the remainder slated to be completed in 2010.[11]

On March 31, 2011 Hawaiian announced that they will be renovating the check-in lobby of the inter-island terminal at the Honolulu International Airport (Hawaiian's main hub). Hawaiian, the only occupant of the inter-island terminal, will be removing the traditional check-in counter, to install six circular check-in islands in the middle of the lobbies. Those check-in islands can be used for inter-island, mainland, and international flights. This renovation project is not a part of the modernization program, meaning it is being fully funded by Hawaiian Airlines[12]

Future projects include construction of a Mauka Concourse branching off the Interisland Terminal, the first concourse expansion at HNL in 15 years. Construction of the concourse will involve replacing the existing Commuter Terminal.[13]

By 2012 Hawaiian Airlines was re-establishing Honolulu Airport as a connecting hub between the United States mainland and the Asia-Pacific region.[14]

Authority

Honolulu International Airport is part of a centralized state structure governing all of the airports and seaports of Hawaii. The official authority of Honolulu International Airport is the Governor of Hawaii, who appoints the Director of the Hawaii State Department of Transportation who has jurisdiction over the Hawaii Airports Administrator.

The Hawaii Airports Administrator oversees six governing bodies: Airports Operations Office, Airports Planning Office, Engineering Branch, Information Technology Office, Staff Services Office, Visitor Information Program Office. Collectively, the six bodies have authority over the four airport districts in Hawaii: Hawaii District, Kauai District, Maui District and the principal Oahu District. Honolulu International Airport is a subordinate of the Oahu District officials.

Facilities and aircraft

The airport has four major runways, which it shares with the adjacent Hickam Air Force Base. The principal runway designated 8R/26L, also known as the Reef Runway, was the world's first major runway constructed entirely offshore. Completed in 1977, the Reef Runway was a designated alternate landing site for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration space shuttle program in association with Hickam Air Force Base, which shares Honolulu International Airport's airfield operations.[15]

In addition to the four paved runways, Honolulu International Airport has two designated offshore runways designated 8W/26W and 4W/22W for use by seaplanes.

The entire terminal complex features twenty-four hour medical services, restaurants, shopping centers and a business center with conference rooms for private use. Passengers have the option of using various short-term and long-term parking structures on the grounds of Honolulu International Airport.

For the 12-month period ending December 8, 2006, the airport had 323,726 aircraft operations, an average of 886 per day: 55% scheduled commercial, 26% general aviation, 15% air taxi and 5% military. There are 206 aircraft based at this airport: 48% single-engine, 27% multi-engine, 16% military, 6% helicopter and 3% jet.[3]

All Nippon Airways has its Honolulu Office in Airport Building 47.[16] When Mid-Pacific Airlines was in operations, its headquarters were on the airport property.[17]

Terminals

Honolulu International Airport has three terminal buildings. A fleet of Chance RT-52 buses provide interterminal transportation between the ticket counters of all three terminals and between the concourses in the Interisland and Main terminals. These buses, known as "Wiki Wiki" buses (from the Hawaiian word for "quick"), are the namesake for the WikiWikiWeb, the first wiki.

The largest airline at Honolulu airport is Hawaiian Airlines offering 13,365 seats per day, which represents a 45% market share. The #2 and #3 carriers are United and Japan Airlines (JAL) with 7.7% and 7.4% market share respectively.

Traffic between Honolulu and the mainland United States is dominated by flights to and from Los Angeles and San Francisco. These two cities, plus Seattle, account for around half of all flights between the mainland and Honolulu. Hawaiian Airlines, with 10 routes, has the highest market share on routes between Honolulu and the mainland.[18]

Internationally Japan is the dominant market. Two-thirds of international seats are heading either for Nagoya, Osaka, Tokyo (Haneda and Narita airports) with services provided by JALways/Japan Airlines, Air Japan, China Airlines, Delta, Hawaiian, or United. Narita alone is served with 61 weekly departures with Japanese carriers operating twice as many flights as US carriers.[18]

Other major international routes are to Seoul (25 weekly departures operated by Korean Airlines, Asiana Airlines and Hawaiian), Sydney (12 weekly departures operated by Hawaiian, Jetstar and Qantas) and Vancouver (19 weekly departures spread between Air Canada and Westjet). This makes Westjet the only genuine low-cost carrier serving Hawaii.[18] In October 2009, China-based Hainan Airlines was granted approval for a nonstop flight from Honolulu to Beijing.[19] It would be the first mainland Chinese carrier to serve Hawaii and the airline's second US destination after Seattle. The airline originally planned to launch the service by the summer of 2010,[20] but the route has been further delayed due to visa concerns and landing fees.[21] China Eastern, however, announced that it will begin nonstop flights from Honolulu to Shanghai on August 9, 2011 instead, marking the first ever direct, regularly scheduled service between China and Hawaii.[22]

Commuter Terminal (Gates 6280)

The Commuter Terminal serves smaller airlines which operate flights between both the smaller and major commercial airports in the island chain.

Boarding and deplaning is conducted directly on the tarmac, using an auxiliary incline ramp to avoid the air-stairs. Passengers who depart from the commuter terminal, and is bound to another island, and wishing to connect to a flight bound for the U.S. Mainland may not have baggage checked all the way to their final destination. The bags must be claimed at the next airport and be re-checked after completing pre-departure agriculture inspection formalities.

  • Gate 6264: Holding area for go!Mokulele & Island Air In-transit/Connecting passengers from the U.S. Mainland.
  • Gate 7174: Gates designated for go!Mokulele Airlines, flights operated by Mesa Airlines
  • Gate 7578: Gates designated for Island Air
  • Gate 79: Gate designated for Mokulele Airlines, flights operated by Mokulele Flight Service
  • Gate 80: Gate designated for Pacific Wings.
Interisland Terminal (Gates 4961)

The Interisland Terminal mainly serves the interisland and some US mainland flights and departing international flights (gate 54) of Hawaiian Airlines; most of Hawaiian's U.S. Mainland and International departures leave from Gates 1534. It is designed to handle flights of jet aircraft between the major commercial airports in the Hawaiian Islands. The former Aloha Airlines and Mokulele Airlines Alii Lounge has been converted to a second Hawaiian Airlines Premier Club Lounge near Gate 56.

On the ground level, Hawaiian Airlines uses Baggage Claim B for U.S. Mainland arrivals, and Baggage Claim C is used for interisland and U.S. Mainland arrivals. International arrivals on Hawaiian use the International Arrivals Baggage Claim located in the Main Terminal. Mokulele Airlines and Aloha Airlines formerly occupied Baggage Claim C.

Main Terminal (Gates 634)

The Main Overseas Terminal serves U.S domestic and international destinations. All boarding gates in the Main Overseas Terminal at Honolulu International are common use, shared among all airlines, and may change daily as the need arises. No gates are assigned to any specific airline. The Main Overseas Terminal is divided into three concourses:

  • Diamond Head Concourse contains gates 6-11
  • Central Concourse contains gates 12-25
  • Ewa Concourse contains gates 26-34

Gates 2634 in addition to serving U.S. domestic flights can serve International flights and provide arrivals access directly into the International Arrivals Building to CBP screening via an enclosed secure corridor. Prior to this opening fully in early 2012 arriving international passengers had to board a Wiki Wiki bus to International arrivals.[23]

Airlines and destinations

Airlines Destinations Lobby
Air Canada Vancouver
Seasonal: Calgary
4
Air New Zealand Auckland 4
Air Pacific Apia, Kiritimati, Nadi 4
Alaska Airlines Anchorage, Bellingham, Oakland, Portland (OR), San Diego, San Jose (CA), Seattle/Tacoma 4
All Nippon Airways operated by Air Japan Tokyo-Haneda, Tokyo-Narita 4
Allegiant Air Bellingham, Las Vegas
Seasonal: Boise, Eugene, Fresno, Phoenix/Mesa, Santa Maria, Spokane, Stockton
6
American Airlines Dallas/Fort Worth, Los Angeles
Seasonal: Chicago-O'Hare
7
Asiana Airlines Seoul-Incheon 8
China Airlines Taipei-Taoyuan, Tokyo-Narita 4
China Eastern Airlines Shanghai-Pudong[24] 7
Delta Air Lines Atlanta, Los Angeles, Osaka-Kansai, Salt Lake City, San Francisco, Seattle/Tacoma, Tokyo-Narita
Seasonal: Fukuoka, Nagoya-Centrair
7
go! operated by Mesa Airlines Hilo, Kahului, Kailua-Kona, Lihue 1
Hawaiian Airlines Las Vegas, Los Angeles, New York-JFK, Oakland, Phoenix, Portland (OR), Sacramento, San Diego, San Francisco, San Jose (CA), Seattle/Tacoma 2
Hawaiian Airlines Auckland, Beijing-Capital (begins April 16, 2014; pending government approval),[25] Brisbane, Fukuoka, Hilo, Kahului, Kailua-Kona, Lihue, Manila (ends July 31, 2013),[25] Osaka-Kansai, Pago Pago, Papeete, Sapporo-Chitose, Sendai (begins June 25, 2013),[26] Seoul-Incheon, Sydney, Taipei-Taoyuan (begins July 9, 2013),[27] Tokyo-Haneda 3
Island Air Kahului, Kapalua (ends May 31, 2013),[28] Lanai, Lihue, Molokai 1
Japan Airlines Nagoya-Centrair, Osaka-Kansai, Tokyo-Haneda, Tokyo-Narita 5
Jetstar Airways Melbourne, Sydney 4
Korean Air Seoul-Incheon, Tokyo-Narita 4
Mokulele Airlines Kapalua,[29] Lanai,[30] Molokai 1
Omni Air International Las Vegas 6
Pacific Wings Kalaupapa, Molokai, Waimea-Kohala 1
Philippine Airlines Manila 4
Qantas Sydney 4
United Airlines Chicago-O'Hare, Chuuk, Denver, Guam, Houston-Intercontinental, Kosrae, Kwajalein, Los Angeles, Majuro, Newark, Pohnpei, San Francisco, Tokyo-Narita, Washington-Dulles 8
US Airways Phoenix 6
WestJet Vancouver
Seasonal: Calgary, Victoria (BC)
4
Top destinations
Busiest international routes from HNL (October 2010 to August 2011)[31]
Rank City Passengers Carriers
1 Tokyo (Narita), Japan 1,105,725 ANA, China Airlines, Delta, JAL, United
2 Seoul (Incheon), South Korea 906,000 Asiana, Hawaiian, Korean Air
3 Taipei (Taoyuan), Taiwan 759,000 China Airlines
4 Sydney, Australia 405,000 Hawaiian, Jetstar, Qantas
5 Auckland, New Zealand 325,000 Air New Zealand
Busiest domestic routes from HNL (January 2012 December 2012)[32]
Rank City Passengers Carriers
1 Los Angeles, California 1,025,000 American, Delta, Hawaiian, United
2 Kahului, Hawaii 1,009,000 go! Mokulele, Hawaiian, Island
3 Kona, Hawaii 695,000 go! Mokulele, Hawaiian
4 Lihue, Hawaii 689,000 go! Mokulele, Hawaiian, Island
5 Hilo, Hawaii 560,000 go! Mokulele, Hawaiian
6 San Francisco, California 497,000 Delta, Hawaiian, United
7 Seattle, Washington 286,000 Alaska, Delta, Hawaiian
8 Las Vegas, Nevada 247,000 Hawaiian, Omni, Allegiant
9 Phoenix, Arizona 217,000 Hawaiian, US Airways
10 Dallas, Texas 149,000 American
Scheduled cargo services
Airlines Destinations
Aloha Air Cargo Hilo, Kahului, Kona, Lihue
Asia Pacific Airlines Guam, Kiritimati, Kwajalein, Majuro, Pago Pago, Pohnpei
Corporate Air Hoolehua, Kalaupapa, Kamuela, Kapalua, Lanai, Lihue
FedEx Express Hilo, Los Angeles, Memphis, Oakland, Sydney
Kalitta Air Hong Kong, Los Angeles
UPS Airlines Hong Kong, Long Beach, Louisville, Kahului, Kona, Ontario, Sydney
Fixed-base operators

A number of fixed-base operators are located along Lagoon Drive on the airport's southeastern perimeter. While these focus on general aviation services, there are a few small passenger airline operations that operate from these facilities, rather than from the main terminal complex. Air tour flights typically depart from this area as well.

Airlines Destinations FBO
Makani Kai Air Charters Kalaupapa Makani Kai
Te Mauri Travel operated by Maritime Air Charters Kiritimati Castle & Cooke Aviation

Public transport

TheBus routes 19, 20, and 31 stop on the upper (departure) level of the airport. Routes 19 and 20 connect the airport to Pearlridge Center (20 only), Hickam AFB (19 only), Downtown Honolulu, Ala Moana Center, and Waikiki. Route 31 connects the airport to Tripler Army Medical Center, via Kalihi Transit Center. Routes 9, 40, 40A, 42, and 62 run on Nimitz Highway within walking distance of the airport.

Accidents and incidents

  • Pan Am Flight 830: a bomb exploded aboard as the aircraft prepared for approach to Honolulu International Airport from Tokyo on August 11, 1982. One teenager was killed and 15 others were injured. The aircraft did not disintegrate, and made a safe emergency landing in Honolulu.
  • Aloha Airlines Flight 243: flying from Hilo to Honolulu International Airport on April 28, 1988, experienced a rapid decompression. An 18-foot-long (5.5 m) section of the fuselage roof and sides were torn from the airplane, due to metal fatigue. Out of the 89 passengers and 6 crew members, the only fatality was a flight attendant blown out of the airplane. Several passengers sustained life-threatening injuries. The aircraft diverted to Kahului Airport.
  • United Airlines Flight 811: a Boeing 747 carrying 3 flight crew, 15 cabin crew and 337 passengers from Honolulu to Auckland on February 24, 1989, suffered rapid decompression when a cargo door separated from the aircraft after takeoff from the Reef Runway. Nine passengers were swept from the aircraft. The plane returned to Honolulu.
  • Bojinka plot: a plot discovered by US and Filipino intelligence authorities after a fire in a Manila apartment, included in its first phase the planned detonation of bombs aboard several flights inbound to, or outbound from, Honolulu on January 21, 1995. The Bojinka plot later developed into the September 11 attacks.

In popular media

The airport is featured in the two racing video games Test Drive Unlimited and Test Drive Unlimited 2.

The airport has also been featured in several episodes of the new Hawaii Five-0.

References

  1. ^ a b "2011 North American Airport Traffic Summary (Top 50 Airports - Passengers, Cargo, Movements)". Airports Council International. Retrieved 2012-08-21. 
  2. ^ "The State of Hawaii Airport Activity Statistics By Year 2007-1994", Department of Transportation, Airports Division, State of Hawaii.
  3. ^ a b FAA Airport Master Record for HNL (Form 5010 PDF), effective 2007-12-20
  4. ^ "Honolulu CDP, HI." U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved on May 21, 2009.
  5. ^ a b c d e "Honolulu International Airport...Celebrating 80 years" (PDF). Gateway to the Pacific: Honolulu International Airport 80th Anniversary. Hawaii Department of Transportation, Airports Division. 2007. Retrieved 12 January 2009. "John Rodgers Airport was dedicated March 21, 1927. The field was named in honor of the late Commander John Rodgers, who had been Commanding Officer of the Naval Air Station at Pearl Harbor from 1923 and 1925..." 
  6. ^ "HNL 1960-1969". Hawaii Department of Transportation, Airports Division. 2007. Retrieved 8 July 2009. 
  7. ^ Trevor James Constable (2008). "ACKNOWLEDGMENTS: A detailed review of participants in and their contributions to etheric rain engineering since 1968". Etheric Rain Engineering Pte. Ltd. Retrieved 8 July 2009. 
  8. ^ http://209.85.165.104/search?q=cache:_0PasxbbFpcJ:www.hawaii.gov/dot/publicaffairs/presskits/hnl/dates.htm&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=11&gl=us
  9. ^ "About the Program". Hawaii Airports Modernization Project. Retrieved 8 July 2009. 
  10. ^ Reyes, B.J. (2006-03-25). "$2.3B airports upgrade proposed". Honolulu Star-Bulletin. Retrieved 2008-10-01. 
  11. ^ "New International Arrivals Corridor Opens at Honolulu International Airport". Office of the Governor. Retrieved 2010-01-03. 
  12. ^ Hawaiian airlines renovating inter-island terminal check-in lobby at Honolulu International Airport, Honolulu Star Advertiser retrieved 2011-03-31
  13. ^ "What We're Doing Now: Honolulu International Airport". Hawaii Airports Modernization Project. Retrieved 8 July 2009. 
  14. ^ Russell, Edward. "ANALYSIS: Honolulu's reascendant connecting hub." Flightglobal. October 30, 2012. Retrieved on October 30, 2012.
  15. ^ "Chronology of Aviation in Hawaii: 1980-1989". Hawaii Aviation. State of Hawaii Department of Transportation. 
  16. ^ "ANA City offices/Honolulu." All Nippon Airways. Retrieved on 13 August 2011. "Honolulu 300 Rodgers Bldg. No. 47 Honolulu International Airport Honolulu, HI. 96819"
  17. ^ "World Airline Directory." Flight International. May 16, 1981. 1452. "Head Office: Honolulu International Airport, Hawaii, USA."
  18. ^ a b c "Not so Happy Hawaii* sees capacity drop by 30% after Alohas collapse". anna.aero. 19 September 2008. 
  19. ^ Dingeman, Robbie (2009-10-12). "Hainan Air approved for Honolulu-Beijing service". USA Today. Tysons Corner, VA, USA: Gannett Company. Archived from the original on 2013-01-25. Retrieved 2013-01-25. 
  20. ^ Hawaii flights by Chinese airline may not start until summer
  21. ^ Direct route to China delayed, Honolulu Star-Advertiser, Aug 15, 2010.
  22. ^ "Airline sets a date for China flights to Hawaii - Hawaii News Now - KGMB and KHNL". Hawaii News Now. 2011-06-16. Retrieved 2012-08-13. 
  23. ^ "Honolulu International Airport 3rd Level International Arrivals Corridor", CDS International, 2012, retrieved 2012-07-29 
  24. ^ "China Eastern Airlines to commence Hawaii service". Honolulu Star-Advertiser. June 15, 2011. Retrieved June 15, 2011. 
  25. ^ a b "Hawaiian Airlines to start service to China". Huffington Post. Associated Press. April 10, 2013. Retrieved April 10, 2013. 
  26. ^ "Hawaiian Airlines to add service to Sendai" (Press release). Hawaiian Airlines. 14 February 2013. Retrieved 14 February 2013. 
  27. ^ "Hawaiian Airlines Begins Ticket Sales for Taipei Service" (Press release). Hawaiian Airlines. February 25, 2013. Retrieved February 26, 2013. 
  28. ^ "Island Air stops Kapalua route; adds Kahului route". KHON-TV. March 22, 2013. Retrieved March 23, 2013. 
  29. ^ "Mokulele to start flights from Honolulu to Kapalua, Maui, in July". Pacific Business News. May 21, 2012. Retrieved May 21, 2012. 
  30. ^ "Go! Mokulele adds Lanai service". Honolulu Star-Bulletin. 2010-04-06. Retrieved 2010-04-06. 
  31. ^ "RITA | Transtats". Transtats.bts.gov. Retrieved 2011-08-13. 
  32. ^ "RITA | BTS | Transtats". Transtats.bts.gov. Retrieved 2012-08-13. 
  33. ^ Aviation Safety Network Aircraft Accident Douglas R6D-1 (DC-6) 131612 Honolulu, HI
  34. ^ Associated Press, "66 Killed as Navy Plane Hits Hawaiian Peak," St. Louis Post-Dispatch, story dated 22 March 1955, quoted in full at lifegrid.com Charles J. Coombs, Jr.
  35. ^ Chronology of Significant Events in Naval Aviation: "Naval Air Transport" 1941 -- 1999
  36. ^ Grossnick, Roy A., United States Naval Aviation 1910-1995, Washington, D.C.: Naval Historical Center, undated, ISBN 0945274343, p. 206.
  37. ^ "Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 7 October 2009. 
  38. ^ "Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 8 October 2009. 

External links


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