|Singapore Changi Airport
Lapangan Terbang Changi Singapura
(Xnjip Zhngyí Jchng)
(Cikappr Cki Vimana Nilaiyam)
|IATA: SIN ICAO: WSSS
|Owner||Government of Singapore|
|Operator||Changi Airport Group (S) Pte Ltd|
|Location||Changi, East Region|
|Opened||1 July 1981 (operational)
29 December 1981 (official)
|Elevation AMSL||7 m / 22 ft|
Singapore Changi Airport (IATA: SIN, ICAO: WSSS), or simply Changi Airport, is the primary civilian airport for Singapore, and one of the largest transportation hubs in Southeast Asia. It is currently the World's Best Airport (Skytrax 2013, 2014 and 2015). The airport is located approximately 17.2 kilometres (10.7 mi) northeast from the commercial centre in Changi, on a 13-square-kilometre (5.0 sq mi) site. It is operated by Changi Airport Group and it is the home base of Singapore Airlines, Singapore Airlines Cargo, SilkAir, Scoot, Tigerair and Jetstar Asia Airways.
Changi Airport serves more than 100 airlines flying to some 300 cities in about 80 countries and territories worldwide. Each week, about 6,500 flights land or depart from Changi, with more than 54.1 million passengers passing through the airport in 2014.
Changi Airport has three passenger terminals with a total annual handling capacity of 66 million passengers. Terminal 1 opened in 1981, followed by Terminal 2 in 1990 and Terminal 3 in 2008. The Budget Terminal, opened on 26 March 2006 and closed on 25 September 2012, will make way for Terminal 4 which will be ready by 2017. Changi Airport Terminal 5 is set to be ready in mid-2020s which will be able to handle 50 million passenger movements per annum .
In 2014, the airport handled 54.1 million passengers, a 0.75% increase over the previous year. This made it the fifth busiest airport by international passenger traffic in the world and the second busiest in Asia by international passenger traffic in 2013. Changi's daily record was broken on 21 December 2013, the Saturday before Christmas Day, with 191,800 passengers passing through the airport in 24 hours. In addition to being an important passenger hub, the airport is one of the busiest cargo airports in the world, handling 1.85 million tonnes of cargo in 2013. The total number of commercial aircraft movements was 343,800 in 2012.
The airport has won over 470 awards since 1981, including 30 "Best Airport" awards in 2013. Changi Airport's efforts to mitigate the effects of ageing infrastructure include continual physical upgrades to its existing terminals and building new facilities to maintain its reputation for setting standards in airport service quality.
Changi Airport Group (Singapore) (CAG), formed on 1 July 2009, is the operator of Singapore Changi Airport as well as Singapore Seletar Airport. Its role was previously undertaken by the Civil Aviation Authority of Singapore (CAAS). The group's head office is located at Terminal 2 of Changi Airport. CAG is headed by its Chief Executive Officer, Lee Seow Hiang, the former principal private secretary to Singapore's Minister Mentor, Lee Kuan Yew. The chairman of the board of directors of CAG is headed by Liew Mun Leong, the former President and CEO of CapitaLand. It was officially launched on 1 July 2009 at a formal launch ceremony by Minister Mentor Lee Kuan Yew.
CAG was set up so that it could focus on the management, marketing and revenue collecting aspects of the airport, while the governmental organisation, CAAS, would be freed up to oversee the regulatory aspects of the airports and of aviation in Singapore. Since the corporatisation of the Airport Operator, CAG has been wholly owned by the Ministry of Finance.
CAG is divided into the following divisions:
As all passenger traffic out of the airport is international in nature, the four major terminals in operation are equipped with immigration-processing facilities for international travel.
After recovering from a drop in passenger traffic as a result of the September 11 attacks in 2001, the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic in 2003, the airport saw rapid growth in traffic which hit the 30-million mark for the first time a year later in 2004. In March 2008 and prior to the full effect of the financial crisis of 20072010 on the global economy, the airport predicted that it will handle 50 million passengers by 2012, with increases due to the opening of casinos in Singapore, together with the phased liberalisation of the Asean aviation sector. The airport surpassed the 46-million mark for the first time in 2011.
For the last set of full-year figures published by the airport, it handled 53,726,087 passengers in 2013, a 5% increase as compared to the previous year. The airport recorded its busiest month in December 2013 (5.12 million) and its busiest day on 21 December 2013 with 191,800 passengers handled.
The Air Cargo Division of the Changi Airport Group manages the Changi Airfreight Centre located in the north of the airport premises. The airport handled 1.81 million tonnes of air cargo in 2012, making it the 7th-busiest airfreight hub in the world and the fifth-busiest in Asia. Due to Singapore's large electronics sector, electrical components constitute a significant part of the total cargo traffic handled at the airport, although it has initiated attempts to diversify into the perishable air cargo market.
In 2014, Changi Airport handled 1,843,799 tonnes of freight which is about the weight of about five and a half Empire State Buildings.
Air Cargo World awarded Changi Airport the 2013 Air Cargo Excellence Award for airports handling more than 1,000,000 tonnes of cargo in Asia.
The LCC market in the airport expanded rapidly since the opening of the Budget Terminal. The terminal handled about 657,000 passengers by 26 October 2006, six months after its opening in March. LCC flights in Changi constituted 11.3% of total flights in October 2006 compared to 9.6% in April the same year. The terminal handled its one-millionth passenger at the end of 2006. A monthly record of 4.53 million passengermovements was registered in December 2011, which marks an increase of 11.4% compared to December 2010. On 17 December 2011, Changi has also set a new record of 165,000 passengermovements in the day. In 2011, LCCs accounted for about 25% of passengers carried (compared to 22.4% in 2009) and 28.6% of flight movements (26.3% in 2009).
In 2010 Indonesia was the largest market for Singapore Changi Airport with 5 million passengers.
The Changi Airport Group manages the overall safety and security of the airport. The Airport Management Division of the CAG manages the customer aspects of the airport's security, while the Aviation Security Unit oversees the airport's compliance with aviation security (AVSEC) policies, manages AVSEC-related projects. Operationally, the airport's emergency and fire-fighting services are handled by the Airport Emergency Service Division of the CAG. The AES handles all instances of rescue and fire-fighting within the airport premises as well as in surrounding waters through its specialists operating from two main fire stations, a Fire Sub-Station and a Sea Rescue Base around the airport.
The airport's security comes under the regulatory purview of the Airport Police Division of the Singapore Police Force. The day to day discharge of security functions at the airport are performed by auxiliary police forces including Aetos Security Management, Certis CISCO and SATS Security Services, of which Aetos and SATS Security Services are affiliated to the ground handling companies of Dnata and Singapore Airport Terminal Services respectively. On 29 April 2008, CAAS then signed its biggest single security contract for all airport related security services by engaging Certis CISCO to provide security services at Changi Airport, as well as Seletar Airport, Changi Airfreight Centre, and the Singapore Air Traffic Control Centre. It involves the deployment of about 2,600 Certis Cisco personnel, including armed Auxiliary Police Officers and unarmed aviation security officers to perform tasks including screening checked baggage, controlling access to restricted areas, and screening passengers before they board their aircraft.
Since the 11 September 2001 attacks and naming of the airport as a terrorism target by the Jemaah Islamiyah, the airport's security has been stepped up. Roving patrol teams consisting of SAF and SPF officers, armed with assault rifles or sub-machine guns, patrol the terminals at random intervals. Officers from the Gurkha Contingent are also deployed to patrol the transit areas of the terminal buildings. These measures come at a cost partly borne by travellers in the form of a "passenger security service charge," imposed since 2002.
In 2005 an upgrade in screening technology and rising security concerns led to luggage-screening processes being conducted behind closed-doors, as opposed to them being done just before check-in previously within public view. Carry-on luggage and persons screening are conducted at the individual departure gates, while check-in luggage are screened in the backrooms and secured before loading. A perimeter intrusion detection system for Changi Airport's perimeter fence has also been put in place to further strengthen security of the airfield. while a biometric access control system for staff movement has been put in place since 2006.
|AirAsia||Kota Kinabalu, Kuala Lumpur, Kuching, Langkawi, Miri, Penang||1|
|Air China||Beijing-Capital, Chengdu||1|
|Air France||Jakarta-Soekarno Hatta, Paris-Charles de Gaulle||1|
|Air India||Chennai, Delhi, Mumbai||2|
|Air India Express||Chennai, Tiruchirappalli||2|
|Air Koryo||Seasonal: Pyongyang||2|
|Air Mauritius||Mauritius[Note 1]||1|
|Air New Zealand||Auckland||3|
|Air Niugini||Port Moresby||1|
|All Nippon Airways||Tokyo-Haneda, Tokyo-Narita||2|
|Bangkok Airways||Koh Samui||1|
|Biman Bangladesh Airlines||Dhaka||1|
|British Airways||London-Heathrow, Sydney||1|
|Cathay Pacific||Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi, Hong Kong||1|
|Cebu Pacific||Cebu, Clark, Iloilo, Manila||2|
|China Airlines||Kaohsiung, Surabaya, Taipei-Taoyuan||1 (ends 1 July 2015), 3 (begins 2 July 2015)|
|China Eastern Airlines||Kunming, Shanghai-Pudong, Wuxi||3|
|China Southern Airlines||Guangzhou||1|
|Delta Air Lines||Tokyo-Narita||1|
|Druk Air||Kolkata, Paro||1|
|Emirates||Brisbane, Colombo, Dubai-International, Melbourne||1|
|Etihad Airways||Abu Dhabi||2|
|EVA Air||Taipei-Taoyuan||1 (ends 1 July 2015), 3 (begins 2 July 2015)|
|Firefly||Ipoh, Kuala Lumpur-Subang, Kuantan||2|
|Garuda Indonesia||Denpasar, Jakarta-Soekarno Hatta, Surabaya||3|
|Indonesia AirAsia||Bandung, Denpasar, Jakarta-Soekarno Hatta, Semarang, Solo, Surabaya (temporarily suspended), Yogyakarta||1|
|Japan Airlines||Tokyo-Haneda, Tokyo-Narita||1|
|Jet Airways||Chennai, Delhi, Mumbai||3|
|Jetstar Airways||Denpasar, Melbourne, Perth||1|
|Jetstar Asia Airways||Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi, Darwin, Denpasar, Fukuoka, Haikou, Hangzhou, Ho Chi Minh City, Hong Kong, Jakarta-Soekarno Hatta, Kuala Lumpur, Manila, Medan, Osaka-Kansai, Phnom Penh, Phuket, Penang, Perth, Shantou, Siem Reap, Surabaya, Taipei-Taoyuan, Yangon||1|
|Jetstar Pacific Airlines||Ho Chi Minh City||1|
|Lion Air||Jakarta-Soekarno Hatta||3|
|Lucky Air||Lijiang (ends 30 June 2015)||2|
|Malaysia Airlines||Kuala Lumpur, Kuching, Miri||2|
|Malindo Air||Ipoh (begins 14 July 2015), Kuala Lumpur||3|
|MIAT Mongolian Airlines||Ulaanbaatar[Note 2]||3|
|Myanmar Airways International||Yangon||1|
|Oman Air||Kuala Lumpur, Muscat||3|
|Qantas||Brisbane, Melbourne, Perth, Sydney
Seasonal: Jakarta Soekarno-Hatta[Note 3]
|Royal Brunei Airlines||Bandar Seri Begawan||2|
|Scoot||Bangkok-Don Mueang, Gold Coast, Hong Kong, Kaohsiung (begins 9 July 2015), Melbourne (begins 1 November 2015), Nanjing, Osaka-Kansai (begins 9 July 2015), Perth, Qingdao, Seoul-Incheon, Shenyang, Sydney, Taipei-Taoyuan, Tianjin, Tokyo-Narita||2|
|SilkAir||Balikpapan, Bandung, Bangalore, Cairns, Cebu, Changsha, Chengdu, Chennai, Chiang Mai, Chongqing, Coimbatore, Da Nang, Darwin, Davao, Denpasar, Hangzhou, Hanoi, Hyderabad, Kalibo, Kathmandu, Kochi, Koh Samui, Kolkata, Kota Kinabalu, Kuala Lumpur, Kuching, Kunming, Langkawi, Lombok, Makassar, Manado, Mandalay, Medan, Palembang, Pekanbaru, Penang, Phnom Penh, Phuket, Semarang, Shenzhen, Siem Reap, Surabaya, Thiruvananthapuram, Visakhapatnam, Wuhan, Xiamen, Yangon, Yogyakarta
Charter: Sanya, Sihanoukville
operated for Air Timor
operated for Singapore Airlines
|Bandar Seri Begawan||2|
|Singapore Airlines||Ahmedabad, Bandar Seri Begawan, Bangalore, Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi, Cape Town, Chennai, Colombo, Denpasar, Delhi, Dhaka, Dubai-International, Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City, Jakarta-Soekarno Hatta, Jeddah, Johannesburg, Kolkata, Kuala Lumpur, Malé, Manila, Mumbai, Surabaya, Yangon||2|
|Singapore Airlines||Adelaide, Amsterdam, Auckland, Barcelona, Beijing-Capital, Brisbane, Christchurch, Copenhagen, Frankfurt, Fukuoka, Guangzhou, Hong Kong, Houston-Intercontinental, Istanbul-Atatürk, London-Heathrow, Los Angeles, Manchester, Melbourne, Milan-Malpensa, Moscow-Domodedovo, Munich, Nagoya-Centrair, New York-JFK, Osaka-Kansai, Paris-Charles de Gaulle, Perth, Rome-Fiumicino, São Paulo-Guarulhos, San Francisco, Seoul-Incheon, Shanghai-Pudong, Sydney, Taipei-Taoyuan, Tokyo-Haneda, Tokyo-Narita, Zürich
Seasonal: Athens, Sapporo-Chitose
|Swiss International Air Lines||Zürich||2|
|Thai AirAsia||Bangkok-Don Mueang, Krabi, Phuket||1|
|Tigerair||Bangalore, Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi, Cebu, Clark, Chennai, Chiang Mai, Denpasar, Dhaka, Guangzhou, Guilin, Haikou, Hanoi, Hat Yai, Ho Chi Minh City, Hong Kong, Hyderabad, Ipoh, Jakarta-Soekarno Hatta, Jinan, Kalibo, Kochi, Krabi, Kuala Lumpur, Langkawi, Macau, Malé, Manila, Nanning, Ningbo, Penang, Phuket, Shenzhen, Surabaya, Taipei-Taoyuan, Tiruchirapalli, Xi'an, Yangon||2|
|Transaero Airlines||Seasonal: Moscow-Domodedovo||3|
|United Airlines||Chicago-O'Hare, Hong Kong, Tokyo-Narita, Washington-Dulles||3|
|Uzbekistan Airways||Kuala Lumpur, Tashkent||1|
|VietJet Air||Ho Chi Minh City||3|
|Vietnam Airlines||Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City, Phu Quoc||3|
|Xiamen Air||Fuzhou, Hangzhou, Xiamen||1|
|Air Hong Kong||Hong Kong|
|ANA Cargo||Okinawa, Tokyo-Narita|
|Asiana Cargo||Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi, Hanoi, Penang, Seoul-Incheon|
|Cardig Air||Balikpapan, Jakarta-Soekarno Hatta|
|Cargolux||Anchorage, Baku, Chicago-O'Hare, Doha, Ho Chi Minh City, Hong Kong, Kuala Lumpur, Luxembourg|
|Cathay Pacific Cargo||Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi, Hanoi, Hong Kong, Penang|
|China Airlines Cargo||Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi, Manila, Penang, Taipei-Taoyuan|
|China Cargo Airlines||Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi, Chengdu, Shanghai-Pudong|
operated by AeroLogic
|Emirates SkyCargo||Dubai-Al Maktoum, Melbourne, Sydney|
|Etihad Cargo||Abu Dhabi, Brisbane, Sydney|
|EVA Air Cargo||Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi, Penang, Taipei-Taoyuan|
|FedEx Express||Anchorage, Guangzhou, Ho Chi Minh City, Jakarta-Soekarno Hatta, Memphis, Osaka-Kansai, Penang, Shanghai-Pudong, Taipei-Taoyuan, Tokyo-Narita|
|Hong Kong Airlines||Hong Kong|
|Korean Air Cargo||Hanoi, Penang, Seoul-Incheon|
|Martinair||Amsterdam, Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi, Dammam, Muscat, Sharjah|
|Nippon Cargo Airlines||Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi, Osaka-Kansai, Tokyo-Narita|
|Singapore Airlines Cargo||Amsterdam, Anchorage, Atlanta, Auckland, Bangalore, Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi, Brussels, Chennai, Chicago-O'Hare, Copenhagen, Dallas/Fort Worth, Hanoi, Hong Kong, Jakarta-Soekarno Hatta, Johannesburg-OR Tambo, Lagos, London-Heathrow, Los Angeles, Medan, Melbourne, Mumbai, Nairobi-Jomo Kenyatta, Nanjing, Sharjah, Sydney|
|TNT Airways||Liège, Shanghai-Pudong|
|Transmile Air Services||Kuala Lumpur, Labuan|
|Tri-MG Intra Asia Airlines||Balikpapan, Jakarta-Soekarno Hatta|
|Turkish Airlines Cargo||Istanbul-Atatürk, Karachi|
|UPS Airlines||Hong Kong, Shenzhen, Sydney, Taipei-Taoyuan|
Changi Airport was built with ground-transportation considerations in mind from the onset, with the East Coast Parkway built and opened in tandem with the airport, providing a direct link to the city-centre. At a distance of about 20 km (12 mi), the expressway was built almost entirely on reclaimed land; thus, minimising disruptions to the existing road network in Singapore's East Coast.
While configured in a compact configuration such that the three main passenger terminal buildings are sited adjacent to each other, allowing for travellers to venture between terminals on foot, the Changi Airport Skytrain people-mover system was added to facilitate quicker and more convenient transfers. The system was upgraded in 2007 to Mitsubishi technology, connecting to Terminal 3 and separating checked-in passengers from the general public on distinct tracks.
The Changi Airport Skytrain operates between Terminals 1, 2 and 3, with a total of seven stations. The trains have separate cars for air-side (transit) and land-side (public) passengers.
The airport is connected to the Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) network, with Changi Airport MRT station located underground between Terminal 2 and Terminal 3 and directly accessible from both terminals. A direct, one-train service to the downtown and western parts of Singapore was initially in operation when the station opened on 8 February 2002 (then accessible only via Terminal 2). This was replaced by the current shuttle service between Changi Airport and Tanah Merah MRT stations on 22 July 2003, when it was found that few passengers actually use this route, compared to the number of commuters who need to travel from the city to Tampines and Pasir Ris. Cross-platform transfers are therefore necessary at Tanah Merah to connect to the rest of the network.
Buses were one of the main methods of transport for passengers and staff until the opening of Changi Airport station. Services operated by SBS Transit and SMRT Buses uses the bus terminals in the basement level of the three main terminals, making a loop starting from Terminal 3 to Terminals 1, and 2, and back to their destination of origin.
Coaches to and from Johor Bahru are also available. The service will start at coach stands at Terminals 1, 2, 3 and end at Larkin Terminal.
There is also a free shuttle bus service plying between Changi Airport (T3) and Changi Business Park. This service is a 9-stop route, running from Mondays to Fridays, except public holidays.
Taxis are available at the taxi stands at the arrival halls of each terminal. There is also an additional airport surcharge for all trips originating from the airport.
|Library resources about
Singapore Changi Airport
Media related to Singapore Changi Airport at Wikimedia Commons