|Washington Dulles International Airport|
|IATA: IAD ICAO: KIAD FAA LID: IAD|
|Owner||Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority|
|Operator||Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority|
|Serves||Washington Metropolitan Area|
|Hub for||United Airlines|
|Elevation AMSL||313 ft / 95 m|
|Source: Federal Aviation Administration|
Washington Dulles International Airport (IATA: IAD, ICAO: KIAD, FAA LID: IAD) is a public airport in Dulles, Virginia, 26 miles (41.6 km) west of downtown Washington, D.C. The airport serves the Baltimore-Washington-Northern Virginia metropolitan area centered on the District of Columbia. It is named after John Foster Dulles, Secretary of State under Dwight D. Eisenhower. The Dulles main terminal is a well-known landmark designed by Eero Saarinen. Operated by the Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority, Dulles Airport occupies 11,830 acres (47.9 km2) straddling the border of Fairfax County and Loudoun County, Virginia.
Dulles lies in two unincorporated communities, Chantilly and Dulles, west of Herndon and southwest of Sterling. Washington Dulles Airport is the largest airport in the Washington Metropolitan Area and is one of the country's busiest airports with over 23 million passengers a year. On a typical day, more than 60,000 passengers depart Washington Dulles to more than 125 destinations around the world.
At the end of World War II, growth in aviation and in the Washington metropolitan area led Congress to pass the Washington Airport Act of 1950, providing federal backing for a second airport. After preliminary proposals failed, including one to establish an international airport at what is now Burke Lake Park, the current site was selected by President Dwight Eisenhower in 1958. As a result of the selection, the former unincorporated community of Willard, which once stood in the airport's current footprint, was demolished.
The civil engineering firm Ammann and Whitney was named lead contractor. The airport was dedicated by President John F. Kennedy on November 17, 1962. Its original name, Dulles International Airport, was changed in 1984 to Washington Dulles International Airport. The main terminal was designed in 1958 by famed Finnish architect Eero Saarinen and it is highly regarded for its graceful beauty, suggestive of flight. In the 1990s, the main terminal at Dulles was reconfigured to allow more space between the front of the building and the ticket counters. Additions at both ends of the main terminal more than doubled the structure's length. The original terminal at Taiwan Taoyuan International Airport in Taoyuan, Taiwan was modeled after the Saarinen terminal at Dulles.
The design included a landscaped man-made lake to collect rainwater, a low-rise hotel, and a row of office buildings along the north side of the main parking lot. The design also included a two-level road in front of the terminal to separate arrival and departure traffic and a federally owned limited access highway connecting the terminal to the Capital Beltway (I-495) about 17 miles (27 km) to the east. (Eventually, the highway system grew to include a parallel toll road to handle commuter traffic and an extension to connect to I-66). The access road had a wide median strip to allow the construction of a passenger rail line, which will be in the form of an extension of the Washington Metro and is expected to be completed in 2018.
Since the 1980s, the original design, which had mobile lounges meet each plane, was not well-suited to Dulles' role as a hub airport. Instead, midfield concourses were added to allow passengers to walk between connecting flights without visiting the main terminal. Mobile lounges were still used for international flights and to transport passengers between the midfield concourses and the main terminal. An underground tunnel (consisting of a passenger walkway and moving sidewalks) which links the main terminal and concourse B was opened in 2004. The Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority (MWAA) began a renovation program for the airport including a new security mezzanine with more room for lines.
A new train system, dubbed AeroTrain and developed by Mitsubishi, began in 2010 to transport passengers between the concourses and the main terminal. The system, which uses rubber tires and travels along a fixed underground guideway, is similar to the people mover systems at Singapore Changi Airport, HartsfieldJackson Atlanta International Airport, and Denver International Airport. The train is intended to replace the mobile lounges, which many passengers found crowded and inconvenient. The initial phase includes the main terminal station, a permanent Concourse A station, a permanent Concourse B station, a permanent midfield concourse station (with access to the current temporary C concourse via a tunnel with moving walkways), and a maintenance facility. Mobile lounges continue to service the D Concourse from both the main terminal and the A Concourse. Mobile lounges will continue to transport international arrivals to the IAB facility. Dulles has stated that the wait time for a train does not exceed four minutes, compared to the average 15-minute wait and travel time for mobile lounges.
Under the development plan, future phases would see the addition of several new midfield concourses and a new south terminal. A fourth runway (parallel to the existing runways 1 and 19 L&R) opened in 2008, and development plans include a fifth runway to parallel the existing runway 1230. An expansion of the B concourse, used by many low cost airlines as well as international arrivals, has been completed, and the Midfield Concourses C and D mainly house United Airlines, and will eventually be knocked down to make room for a more ergonomic building. Because Concourses C and D are temporary concourses, the only way to get to those concourses is via moving walkway from the Concourse C station which is built in the location of the future gates and Concourse D by mobile lounge from the main terminal.
In 2010, United Airlines maintained its East Coast hub at Dulles and handled 56.7% of scheduled air carrier passengers at the airport. JetBlue handled 6.8% of scheduled air carrier passengers, and American Airlines is the airport's third largest carrier in terms of tickets sold and handled 5.4%. In addition, 25 foreign carriers have service in and out of Washington Dulles. On a typical day, Dulles averages 1,000 to 1,200 flight operations. Dulles International served 23.3 million passengers in 2011, a 2.2% decrease over 2010. However international passenger traffic has increased by 1.6% during the same time frame.
More international and low-cost airlines are commencing service at Washington Dulles, and traffic in 2010 is rebounding from the loss in passengers due to the late-2000s recession and the September 11, 2001 attacks. In summer 2010 Washington Dulles served 49,000 more passengers than for the same month of the previous year. Nonetheless, even before the United States economic recession started, international passengers have continued to grow, which prompted the Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority to expand the international arrivals building to handle 2,400 passengers per hour.
|1||London (Heathrow), United Kingdom||990,010||British Airways, United, Virgin Atlantic|
|2||Frankfurt, Germany||666,888||Lufthansa, United|
|3||Paris (Charles de Gaulle), France||480,008||Air France, United|
|4||Tokyo (Narita), Japan||300,391||All Nippon, United|
|5||Amsterdam, Netherlands||288,810||KLM, United|
|6||Munich, Germany||228,328||Lufthansa, United|
|7||San Salvador, El Salvador||175,137||TACA Airlines|
|8||Doha, Qatar||177,248||Qatar Airways|
|9||Toronto (Pearson), Canada||162,576||United|
|10||São Paulo (Guarulhos), Brazil||156,735||United|
|1||Los Angeles, California||648,000||American, United, Virgin America|
|2||San Francisco, California||630,000||United, Virgin America|
|3||Denver, Colorado||452,000||Southwest, United|
|4||Atlanta, Georgia||389,000||AirTran, Delta, United|
|5||Boston, Massachusetts||294,000||JetBlue, United|
|6||Chicago (O'Hare), Illinois||278,000||United|
|7||Orlando, Florida||273,000||Jetblue, United|
|8||Dallas/Fort Worth, Texas||228,000||American, United|
|9||Chicago (Midway), Illinois||201,000||Southwest|
|10||Charlotte, North Carolina||187,000||United, US Airways|
|2||ExpressJet Airlines (Delta Connection, United Express)||2,144,664|
|3||Mesa Airlines (United Express, US Airways Express)||1,080,831|
|4||Colgan Air (Continental Connection, United Express)||861,507|
|8||Trans States Airlines (United Express)||578,521|
|9||Delta Air Lines||552,263|
The airport's terminal complex consists of a main terminal and two midfield terminal buildings: Concourses A/B and C/D. The entire terminal complex has 123 gates and 16 hardstand locations from which passengers can board or disembark using the airport's plane mate vehicles.
Dulles is one of the few remaining airports to use the mobile lounge (also known as "plane mates" or "people movers") for boarding and disembarkation from aircraft, and to transfer passengers between the midfield concourses and to and from the main terminal building. They have all been given names based on the postal abbreviations of 50 states, e.g.: VA, MD, AK.
The Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority has begun to gradually phase out the mobile lounge system for inter-terminal passenger movements in favor of AeroTrain, an underground people mover which currently operates to Concourses A, B and C, and a pedestrian walkway system (now in service to concourse A/B). The plane mates are still used to transport passengers to the D terminal. Plane mates will also remain in use to disembark international passengers and carry them to the International Arrivals Building, as well as to convey passengers to and from aircraft on hard stand (i.e., those parked remotely on the apron without access to jet bridges).
The main terminal (which houses ticketing, baggage claim, U.S. Customs and Border Protection, the Z gates, and other support facilities) was recognized by the American Institute of Architects in 1966 for its design concept; its roof is a suspended catenary providing a wide enclosed area unimpeded by any columns. It houses ticketing, baggage claim, and information facilities, as well as the International Arrivals Building for passenger processing.
The main terminal was extended in 1996 to 1,240 feet (380 m) Saarinen's original design length which was slightly more than double its originally constructed length of 600 feet (180 m). In addition, an extension for international arrivals was added to the west of the main terminal in 1991. On September 22, 2009, an expansion of the international arrivals building opened which includes a 41,400 square feet (3,850 m2) arrival hall for customs and immigration processing. The new facility has the capacity to process 2,400 arriving passengers per hour.
In September 2009, a 121,700 square feet (11,310 m2) central Transportation Security Administration checkpoint was added on a new security mezzanine level of the main terminal. This checkpoint replaced previous checkpoints located behind the ticketing areas. A separate security checkpoint is available on the baggage claim level. Both security checkpoints connect to the new AeroTrain, which links the main terminal with the A, B, and C concourses.
There are two sets of gates in the main terminal: waiting areas for airlines which lack permanent physical gates and therefore use plane mates to reach planes parked at 16 hard-stand locations, which are referred to as the "H" Gates, and the "Z" Gates (with 4 gates), which provide service for US Airways.
There are two midfield terminal buildings at Washington Dulles: one contains the A and B midfield concourses, the other the C and D midfield concourses.
Concourse A (which has 47 gates) consists of a permanent ground level set of gates designed for small planes such as regional jets and several former B concourse gates. Concourse B (which has 28 gates) is the first of the permanent elevated midfield concourses. Originally constructed in 1998 and designed by Skidmore, Owings and Merrill and Hellmuth, Obata and Kassabaum, the B concourse contained 20 gates. In 2003, 4 additional gates were added to concourse B, followed by a 15-gate expansion in 2008. It is connected to the main terminal by an underground walkway in addition to the AeroTrain.
The C and D concourses (with each concourse containing 22 gates), completed in 1983 and designed by Hellmuth, Obata and Kassabaum, were originally designed as a temporary base for United Airlines, which began hub operations at the airport in 1985. The C/D concourses were given a face lift in 2006 which included light fixture upgrades, new paint finishes, new ceiling grids and tiles, heating and air conditioning replacement, and complete restroom renovations. This building also has a dedicated Federal Inspection Station ("FIS") for arriving United and certain Star Alliance-member airlines' international passengers to clear U.S. Customs prior to connecting to subsequent flights. Since this immigration facility is only for connecting passengers on United and its partners' flights, it has shorter lines and passengers don't have to clear security at the massive TSA checkpoint in the main terminal.
A new and permanent C/D concourse (also called "Tier 2") is planned as part of the D2 Dulles Development Project. The new building is to include a three-level structure with 44 airline gates and similar amenities to Concourse B. The concourse plan includes a dedicated mezzanine corridor with moving sidewalks to serve international passengers. The design and construction of the new C/D concourse has not been scheduled.
|Air France||Paris-Charles de Gaulle||A|
|All Nippon Airways||Tokyo-Narita||B|
|American Airlines||Dallas/Fort Worth, Los Angeles, Miami||B|
|Austrian Airlines operated by Tyrolean Airways||Vienna||B|
|Avianca||Bogotá, La Paz||A|
|Brussels Airlines||Brussels (begins June 18, 2013)||B|
|Cayman Airways||Seasonal: Grand Cayman||B|
|Copa Airlines||Panama City||A|
|Delta Air Lines||Atlanta
Seasonal: Cancún, Minneapolis/St. Paul
|Delta Connection operated by Chautauqua Airlines||New York-LaGuardia||B|
|Delta Connection operated by Compass Airlines||Minneapolis/St. Paul||B|
|Delta Connection operated by ExpressJet||Atlanta, Detroit||B|
|Delta Connection operated by Pinnacle Airlines||Detroit, Minneapolis/St. Paul, New York-JFK, New York-LaGuardia||B|
|Ethiopian Airlines||Addis Ababa||B|
|Etihad Airways||Abu Dhabi||A|
|JetBlue Airways||Boston, Long Beach, New York-JFK
|Porter Airlines||Toronto-Billy Bishop||A|
|South African Airways||Dakar, Johannesburg||B|
|Southwest Airlines||Chicago-Midway, Denver||B|
|Sun Air International||Hagerstown, Lancaster||B|
|TACA Airlines||San Salvador||B|
|United Airlines||Albuquerque, Amsterdam, Aruba, Austin, Bahrain, Beijing-Capital, Boston, Brussels, Cancún, Chicago-O'Hare, Dallas/Fort Worth, Denver, Doha, Dubai, Dublin, Fort Lauderdale, Frankfurt, Geneva, Grand Cayman, Guatemala City, Honolulu, Houston-Intercontinental, Kuwait, Las Vegas, London-Heathrow, Los Angeles, Manchester (UK), Mexico City, Munich, New Orleans, Orlando, Paris-Charles de Gaulle, Phoenix, Portland (OR), Raleigh/Durham, Rio de Janeiro-Galeão, Rome-Fiumicino, Sacramento, Salt Lake City, San Antonio, San Diego, San Francisco, San José de Costa Rica, San Juan, San Salvador, São Paulo-Guarulhos, Seattle/Tacoma, St. Maarten, St. Thomas, Tampa, Tokyo-Narita, Zürich
Seasonal: Hartford, Miami, Montego Bay, Punta Cana, Vancouver (begins June 8, 2013)
|United Express operated by CommutAir||Allentown/Bethlehem, Binghamton, Charleston (WV), Charlottesville, Cleveland, Fayetteville (NC), Newark, Norfolk, State College (PA), Syracuse||A|
|United Express operated by ExpressJet||Allentown/Bethlehem, Atlanta, Buffalo, Burlington, Charleston (SC), Charleston (WV), Charlotte, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Columbia (SC), Columbus (OH), Detroit, Grand Rapids (begins May 1, 2013), Greensboro, Greenville/Spartanburg, Hartford, Huntsville, Indianapolis, Jacksonville, Kansas City, Knoxville, Louisville, Montréal-Trudeau, Nashville, New York-JFK, New York-LaGuardia, Newark, Norfolk, Ottawa, Pittsburgh, Portland (ME), Providence, Raleigh/Durham, Richmond, Roanoke, Rochester (NY), Savannah, Syracuse, Toronto-Pearson, Tulsa
Seasonal: Quebec City
|A, C, & D|
|United Express operated by GoJet Airlines||Albany, Austin, Burlington, Detroit, Hartford, Jacksonville (FL), Kansas City, Montréal-Trudeau, New Orleans, Norfolk, Oklahoma City, Portland (ME), Richmond, Rochester (NY), St. Louis, San Antonio, Syracuse, Toronto-Pearson||A, C, & D|
|United Express operated by Mesa Airlines||Albany, Atlanta, Austin, Buffalo, Charleston (SC), Charlotte, Dallas/Fort Worth, Hartford, Indianapolis, Jacksonville (FL), Kansas City, Miami, Nashville, New York-LaGuardia, Norfolk, Oklahoma City, Pittsburgh, Portland (ME), Providence, Raleigh/Durham, Rochester (NY), Savannah, Syracuse||A, C, & D|
|United Express operated by Republic Airlines||Albany, Burlington, Cleveland, Columbus (OH), Newark, Norfolk, Pittsburgh, Portland (ME), Providence, Raleigh/Durham, Syracuse||A, C, & D|
|United Express operated by Shuttle America||Atlanta, Austin, Boston, Buffalo, Cleveland, Columbus (OH), Dallas/Fort Worth, Hartford, Houston-Intercontinental, Indianapolis, Jacksonville (FL), Kansas City, Minneapolis/St. Paul, Montréal-Trudeau, New Orleans, New York-LaGuardia, Newark, Norfolk, Ottawa, Pittsburgh, Raleigh/Durham, Rochester (NY), San Antonio, Toronto-Pearson
Seasonal: Fort Myers, Halifax
|A, C, & D|
|United Express operated by Silver Airways||Altoona, Beckley, Clarksburg, Johnstown, Lewisburg (WV), Morgantown, Shenandoah Valley||A, C, & D|
|United Express operated by SkyWest Airlines||Atlanta, Austin, Cleveland, Colorado Springs, Columbus (OH) (begins May 4, 2013), Dallas/Fort Worth, Houston-Intercontinental, Indianapolis, New Orleans, New York-LaGuardia, Norfolk, Pittsburgh, San Antonio, Toronto-Pearson, Tulsa||A, C, & D|
|United Express operated by Trans States Airlines||Boston, Charleston (SC), Cincinnati, Columbus (OH), Dayton, Detroit, Greenville/Spartanburg, Harrisburg, Hartford, Huntsville, Knoxville, Manchester (NH), Nashville, Norfolk, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Portland (ME), Richmond, Roanoke, Rochester (NY), St. Louis, Savannah, Syracuse
Seasonal: Myrtle Beach
|A, C, & D|
|US Airways||Seasonal: Charlotte||Z|
|US Airways Express operated by Air Wisconsin||Charlotte||Z|
|US Airways Express operated by Mesa Airlines||Charlotte||Z|
|US Airways Express operated by Piedmont Airlines||Charlotte||Z|
|US Airways Express operated by PSA Airlines||Charlotte||Z|
|Virgin America||Los Angeles, San Francisco||B|
|Virgin Atlantic Airways||London-Heathrow||A|
Since many major domestic and international airlines have a large presence at Washington Dulles, there are several airline lounges in active operation there.
Dulles is accessible via the Dulles Access Road/Dulles Greenway (State Route 267) and State Route 28. The Dulles Airport Access Highway (DAAH) is a toll-free, limited access, highway owned by the Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority (MWAA) to facilitate car access to Dulles from the Washington Capital Beltway and Interstate 66. After it opened, non-airport traffic between Washington and Reston became so heavy that a parallel set of toll lanes were added on the same right-of-way to accommodate non-airport traffic (Dulles Toll Road). However, the airport-only lanes are both less congested as well as toll-free. As of November 1, 2008, MWAA assumed responsibility from the Virginia Department of Transportation both for operating the Dulles Toll Road and for the construction of a rapid transit rail line down its median. Route 28, which runs northsouth along the eastern edge of the airport, has been upgraded to a limited access highway, with the interchanges financed through a property tax surcharge on nearby business properties. The Dulles Toll Road has been extended to the west to Leesburg as the Dulles Greenway.
Passengers connecting to the Shenandoah Valley can use the Shenandoah Valley Commuter Bus, which connects to the Vienna and Rosslyn Metro station. Taxis and SuperShuttle ride sharing vans are also available.
Fairfax Connector service to Dulles is through via route 981; from Tysons Corner to Reston then to Herndon.
As of 2012[update], the only Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority service to Dulles is the "Express" 5A Metrobus route. The 5A express bus makes two stops on its way from the airport to downtown Washington. Stops include the HerndonMonroe park & ride lot in Herndon and the Rosslyn Metro station in Arlington. It terminates at the L'Enfant Plaza Metro station in Southwest DC. Both metro stations can be accessed by the Orange and Blue lines, while the latter can also be accessed by the Yellow and Green lines. The 950 Fairfax Connector bus brings passengers from Reston to the HerndonMonroe transfer station, where they can switch to the 5A bus to the airport. The RIBS 2 Fairfax Connector bus also connects Reston passengers to the HerndonMonroe transfer point. An alternative (but slightly more expensive) way of reaching Dulles is the Washington Flyer Coach bus service that operates roughly every thirty minutes between the airport and the West Falls Church Metro station.
Construction is now underway to connect the airport to Washington via the Silver Line of the Washington Metro. Initial plans called for completion of the station in 2016, however officials now expect to complete construction in 2018.
Dulles has been the backdrop for many Washington-based movies, starting shortly after the airport opened with the 1964 film Seven Days in May.
The action film Die Hard 2 is set primarily at Dulles. The plot of the film involves the takeover of the airport's tower and communication systems by terrorists working out of a fictitious church on the west side of the airport (in the space north of Runway 1230 and west of Runway 1L-19R). The film was not shot at Dulles; the stand-ins were Los Angeles International Airport (LAX) and the now-closed Stapleton International Airport in Denver. An often-noted inconsistency is the existence of Pacific Bell pay phones in the main terminal (the telephone company that served Dulles at the time was GTE and the nearest PacBell territory was thousands of miles away). Other inconsistencies include the fact that Dulles appears to have its own airport police, when the Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority had provided police service at Dulles for two years when the movie had been made; and the fact that there is no church anywhere close enough to be sitting on top of underground airport utility lines.
Portions of all three sequels to the disaster film Airport were filmed at Dulles: Airport 1975, with Charlton Heston, Karen Black and George Kennedy; Airport '77, with Jack Lemmon, Christopher Lee and George Kennedy; and The Concorde ... Airport '79.
Dulles has also served as a stand-in for a New York City airport, in the 1999 comedy, Forces of Nature. While set in a New York airport, the main terminal is recognizable.
The airport is also shown momentarily in the film Body of Lies. In the scene, Leonardo DiCaprio mentions he is in "Dubai International" on the phone, although one can clearly see the iconic curved roof and concave entry windows on the upper deck of the Dulles departures area in the background behind him.
The terminal can also be seen in In the Line of Fire starring Clint Eastwood.
In the 2004 video game Need for Speed Underground 2, Bayview International Airport has a similar layout to Dulles Airport.
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