Where in the world have you flown?
How long have you been in the air?
Create your own FlightMemory and see!


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Aeroflot Russian Airlines)
Jump to navigation Jump to search

AeroflotRussian Airlines
IATA ICAO Callsign
Founded3 February 1923; 96 years ago (3 February 1923)
Commenced operations15 July 1923
HubsSheremetyevo International Airport
Frequent-flyer programAeroflot Bonus
Fleet size249
Traded asMCXAFLT
HeadquartersMoscow, Russia
Key people
Revenue 532.9 billion (7.0 billion[2]) (FY 2017)[3]
Net income 23 billion (FY 2017)[3]
Profit 40.4 billion (FY 2017)[3]
Employees30,328 (Aeroflot Group)

PJSC Aeroflot – Russian Airlines (Russian: " ", PAO AeroflotRossiyskiye avialinii), commonly known as Aeroflot (English: /roflt/ or /roflt/ (listen)) (Russian: , English translation: "air fleet", pronounced [rfot]), is the flag carrier[4] and largest airline of the Russian Federation.[5] The air carrier is an open joint stock company that operates both domestic and international passenger and services, mainly from its airline hub at Sheremetyevo International Airport.

Aeroflot is one of the oldest airlines in the world, tracing its history back to 1923. During the Soviet era, Aeroflot was the Soviet national airline and the largest airline in the world.[6][7] Following the dissolution of the USSR, the carrier has been transformed from a state-run enterprise into a semi-privatised company which ranked 19th most profitable airline in the world in 2007.[8] Aeroflot is still considered the de facto national airline of Russia.[9] It is 51%-owned by the Russian Government. As of September 2013, the Aeroflot Group had 30,328 employees. By the end of 2017, Aeroflot controlled roughly 40% of the air market in Russia.[10]

The company has embarked on a fleet modernisation programme, extensive route restructuring and an image overhaul.[citation needed] The airline joined SkyTeam in April 2006, becoming the 10th member of the alliance.


Early history of Soviet civil aviation

On 17 January 1921, the Sovnarkom of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic published "About Air Transportation". The document signed by Lenin set out the basic regulations on air transport over the territory of the RSFSR. The document was significant as it was the first time that a Russian state had declared sovereignty over its airspace. In addition, the document defined rules for the operation of foreign aircraft over the Soviet Union's airspace and territory. After Lenin issued an order, a State Commission was formed on 31 January 1921 for the purpose of civil aviation planning in the Soviet Union. As a result of the commission's plans, Glavvozdukhflot (Chief Administration of the Civil Air Fleet) (Russian: ( )) was established, and it began mail and passenger flights on the Moscow-Oryol-Kursk-Kharkov route on 1 May 1921 using Sikorsky Ilya Muromets aircraft.[11]:1 This was followed by the formation of Deruluft-Deutsch Russische Luftverkehrs A.G. in Berlin on 11 November 1921, as a joint venture between the Soviet Union and Germany. The company, whose aircraft were registered in both Germany and the Soviet Union, began operations on 1 May 1922 with a Fokker F.III flying between Königsberg and Moscow.[11]:2 The service was initially operated twice a week and restricted to the carriage of mail.[11]:23

On 3 February 1923 Sovnarkom approved plans for the expansion of the Red Air Fleet, and it is this date which was officially recognised as the beginning of civil aviation in the Soviet Union. After a resolution of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, the Enterprise for Friends of the Air Fleet (ODVF) was founded on 8 March 1923, followed by the formation of Dobrolet (Russian: ) on 17 March 1923. The artist Alexander Rodchenko became involved in the ODVF at this time. He designed posters encouraging citizens to buy stock in Dobrolet and the famous "Winged Hammer and Sickle" logo still used by Aeroflot.[12] Regular flights by Dobrolet from Moscow to Nizhniy Novgorod commenced on 15 July 1923. During the same period, an additional two airlines were established; Zakavia being based in Tiflis, and Ukrvozdukhput based in Kharkov.[11]:2 During 1923 an agreement was signed establishing a subdivision of Dobrolet to be based in Tashkent, which would operate to points in Soviet Central Asia. Services between Tashkent and Alma Ata began on 27 April 1924, and by the end of 1924 the subdivision had carried 480 passengers and 500 kilograms (1,100 lb) of mail and freight, on a total of 210 flights.[11]:6 In March 1924, Dobrolet began operating flights from Sevastopol to Yalta and Yevpatoriya in the Crimea. Dobrolet's route network was extended during the 19251927 period to include Kazan and regular flights between Moscow and Kharkov were inaugurated. Plans were made for Dobrolet flights to Kharkov to connect with Ukrvozdukhput services to Kiev, Odessa and Rostov-on-Don. During 1925, Dobrolet operated 2,000 flights over a distance of 1,000,000 kilometres (620,000 mi), carrying 14,000 passengers and 127,500 kilograms (281,100 lb) of freight, on a route network extending to some 5,000 kilometres (3,100 mi).[11]:7 Dobrolet was transformed from a Russian to an all-Union enterprise on 21 September 1926 as a result of Sovnarkom resolutions, and in 1928 Dobrolet was merged with Ukrvozdukhput; the latter having merged with Zakavia in 1925.[11]:67

Formative years

Responsibility for all civil aviation activities in the Soviet Union came under the control of the Chief Directorate of the Civil Air Fleet on 25 February 1932, and on 25 March 1932 the name "Aeroflot" was officially adopted for the entire Soviet Civil Air Fleet.[11]:10 The Communist Party of the Soviet Union Congress in 1933 set out development plans for the civil aviation industry for the following five years, which would see air transportation becoming one of the primary means of transportation in the Soviet Union, linking all major cities. The government also implemented plans to expand the Soviet aircraft industry to make it less dependent on foreign built aircraft;[11]:1011 in 1930 some fifty percent of aircraft flying services in the Soviet Union were of foreign manufacture.[11]:8

Expansion of air routes which had taken shape in the late 1920s,[11]:8 continued into the 1930s. Local (MVL) services were greatly expanded in Soviet Central Asia and the Soviet Far East,[11]:1113 which by the end of the second Five-Year Plan in 1937 was 35,000 kilometres (22,000 mi) in length out of a total network of some 93,300 kilometres (58,000 mi).[11]:13 The agreement between the Soviet Union and Germany relating to Deruluft expired on 1 January 1937 and wasn't renewed, which saw the joint venture carrier ceasing operations on 1 April 1937. On that date Aeroflot began operations on the Moscow to Stockholm route, and began operating the ex-Deruluft route from Leningrad to Riga utilising Douglas DC-3s and Tupolev ANT-35s (PS-35s). Flights from Moscow to Berlin, via Königsberg, were suspended until 1940, when they were restarted by Aeroflot and Lufthansa as a result of the signing of the MolotovRibbentrop Pact, and would continue until the beginning of the Great Patriotic War in 1941.[11]:5

Under the third Five-Year Plan, which began in 1938, civil aviation development continued, with improvements to airport installations being made and construction of airports being commenced. In addition to the expansion of services between the Soviet Union's main cities, local routes (MVL) were also expanded, and by 1940, some 337 MVL routes saw operations on a scheduled basis. Serial production of the Lisunov Li-2 (license-built Douglas DC-3) commenced in 1939, and the aircraft became the backbone of Aeroflot's fleet on mainline trunk routes. When the Soviet Union was invaded by Nazi Germany on 22 June 1941, the following day the Sovnarkom placed the Civil Air Fleet under the control of Narkomat, leading to the full-scale mobilisation of Aeroflot crews and technicians for the Soviet war effort. Prior to the invasion, the Aeroflot network extended over some 146,000 kilometres (91,000 mi), and amongst the longest routes being operated from Moscow were those to Tbilisi (via Baku), Tashkent and Vladivostok.[11]:13 Aeroflot aircraft, including PS-35s and PS-43s, were based at Moscow's Central Airport; and important missions undertaken by Aeroflot aircraft and crews included flying supplies to the besieged cities of Leningrad, Kiev, Odessa and Sevastopol.[11]:14 During the Battle of Stalingrad, between August 1942 and February 1943, Aeroflot operated 46,000 missions to Stalingrad, ferrying in 2,587 tonnes (5,703,000 lb) of supplies and some 30,000 troops. Following the defeat of the Wehrmacht, some 80 Junkers Ju 52/3ms were captured from the Germans, and were placed into the service of the Civil Air Fleet, and after the war were placed into regular service across the Soviet Union.[11]:15 Whilst civil operations in European Russia west of the front line, which ran from Leningrad to Moscow to Rostov-on-Don, were prevented from operating because of the war, services from Moscow to the Urals, Siberia, Central Asia, and other regions which were not affected by the war, continued.[11]:1516 By the end of the war, Aeroflot had flown 1,595,943 special missions, including 83,782 at night, and carried 1,538,982 men and 122,027 tonnes (269,023,000 lb) of cargo.[11]:16

Post-World War II operations

At the end of World War II, the Soviet government went about repairing and rebuilding essential airport infrastructure, and it strengthened the Aeroflot units in the European part of the Soviet Union. Aeroflot had by the end of 1945 carried 537,000 passengers, compared with 359,000 in 1940.[11]:16 The government made it a priority in the immediate postwar years to expand services from Moscow to the capital of the Union republics, in addition to important industrial centres on the country. To enable this, the government transferred to Aeroflot a large number of Lisunov Li-2s, and they would become the backbone of the fleet.[11]:17

The Ilyushin Il-12 entered service on Aeroflot's all-Union scheduled routes on 22 August 1947, and supplemented already existing Li-2 services. The original Ilyushin Il-18 entered service around the same time as the Il-12, and was operated on routes from Moscow to Yakutsk, Khabarovsk, Vladivostok, Alma Ata, Tashkent, Sochi, Mineralnye Vody and Tbilisi. By 1950 the Il-18 was withdrawn from service, being replaced by Il-12s.[11]:18,20 MVL and general aviation services received a boost in March 1948, when the first Antonov An-2s were delivered and entered service in Central Russia. Development of MVL services over latter years was attributed to the An-2, which was operated by Aeroflot in all areas of the Soviet Union.[11]:20

Aeroflot's route network had extended to 295,400 kilometres (183,600 mi) by 1950, and it carried 1,603,700 passengers, 151,070 tonnes (333,050,000 lb) of freight and 30,580 tonnes (67,420,000 lb) of mail during the same year. Night flights began in the same year, and the 5th Five-Year Plan, covering the period 19511955, emphasised Aeroflot expanding night-time operations, which vastly improved aircraft utilisation. By 1952, some 700 destinations around the Soviet Union received regular flights from Aeroflot.[11]:20 On 30 November 1954, the Ilyushin Il-14 entered service, and the aircraft took a leading role in the operation of Aeroflot's all-Union services. The number of passengers carried in 1955 increased to 2,500,000, whilst freight and mail carriage also increased, to 194,960 and 63,760 tons, respectively. By this time, Aeroflot's route network covered a distance of some 321,500 kilometres (199,800 mi).[11]:21

The 20th Communist Party Congress, held in 1956, saw plans for Aeroflot services to be dramatically increased. The airline would see its overall activities increased from its then current levels by 3.8 times, and it was set the target of the carriage of 16,000,000 passengers by 1960. In order to meet these goals, Aeroflot introduced higher capacity turbojet and turbine-prop aircraft on key domestic routes, and on services to Aeroflot destinations abroad. A major step for Aeroflot occurred on 15 September 1956 when the Tupolev Tu-104 jet airliner entered service on the Moscow-Omsk-Irkutsk route, marking the world's first sustained jet airline service. The airline began international flights with the type on 12 October 1956 under the command of Boris Bugayev with flights from Moscow to Prague. The aircraft placed Aeroflot in an enviable position, as airlines in the West had operated throughout the 1950s with large piston-engined aircraft.[11]:21[13]:44[14] By 1958 the route network covered 349,200 kilometres (217,000 mi), and the airline carried 8,231,500 passengers, and 445,600 tons of mail and freight, with fifteen percent of all-Union services being operated by jet aircraft.[11]:23

Aeroflot introduced the Antonov An-10 and Ilyushin Il-18 in 1959, and together with its existing jet aircraft, the airline was able to extend services on modern aircraft to twenty one cities during 1960.[11]:23 The Tupolev Tu-114, then the world's largest airliner, entered service with the Soviet carrier on 24 April 1961 on the Moscow-Khabarovsk route; covering a distance of 6,980 kilometres (4,340 mi) in 8 hours 20 minutes.[11]:24 The expansion of the Aeroflot fleet saw services with modern aircraft being extended to forty one cities in 1961, with fifty percent of all-Union services being operated by these aircraft. This fleet expansion also saw the number of passengers carried in 1961 skyrocketing to 21,800,000.[11]:24

Further expansion came in 1962 when both the Tupolev Tu-124 and Antonov An-24 entered regular service with Aeroflot on various medium and short-haul routes. By 1964, Aeroflot operated direct flights from Moscow to 100 cities, from Leningrad to 44 cities, and from Kiev to 38 cities. The airline also operated direct flights from Mineralnyie Vody to 48 cities across the Soviet Union, denoting the importance of the operation of holiday aircraft services to Aeroflot.[11]:26 Statistics for the same year showed Aerfolot operating an all-Union route network extending over 400,000 kilometres (250,000 mi), and carrying 36,800,000 passengers.[11]:27

By 1966 Aeroflot carried 47,200,000 passengers over a domestic route network of 474,600 kilometres (294,900 mi). For the period of the 8th Five-Year Plan, which ran from 19661970, Aeroflot carried a total of 302,200,000 passengers, 6.47 billion tons of freight and 1.63 billion tons of mail.[11]:27 During the Five-Year Plan period, all-Union services were extended over an additional 350 routes; an additional 1,000 MVL routes were begun, and 40 new routes were opened up with all-cargo flights.[11]:2728 The year 1967 saw the introduction into service of the Ilyushin Il-62 and Tupolev Tu-134, and in September 1968 the Yakovlev Yak-40 regional jet began operations on short-haul services.

That same year, the Il-62 inaugurated the long-delayed service between Moscow and New York, which finally began in July and was operated by Aeroflot and Pam Am jointly. According to Mark Jones book 'The Aeroflot Story: From Russia With Luck': This business relationship would become an acrimonious affair in which both parties complained it had been wronged by the other. Pan Am accused the Soviets of illegally siphoning away Moscow-to-New York passengers, whilst in turn; Aeroflot accused US consular officials in Russia of having steered passengers to Pan Am flights. By 1970, the last year of the Five-Year Plan period, Aeroflot was operating flights to over 3,500 destinations in the Soviet Union, and at the height of the 1970 summer holidays season, the airline was carrying approximately 400,000 passengers per day, and some ninety percent of passengers were being carried on propeller-turbine and jet aircraft.[11]:28

Expansion of international flights

In January 1971, the Central Administration of International Air Traffic (Russian: ) (TsUMVS) was established within the framework of IATA, and became the sole enterprise authorised to operate international flights. Abroad, the airline was known as Aeroflot Soviet Airlines. In 1976, Aeroflot carried its 100 millionth passenger. Its flights were mainly concentrated around the Soviet Union, but the airline also had an international network covering five continents: North and South America, Europe, Africa and Asia. The network included countries such as the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Spain, Cuba, Mexico and the People's Republic of China.[15]

Aeroflot service between the Soviet Union and the United States was interrupted from 15 September 1983 until 2 August 1990, following an executive order by U.S. President Ronald Reagan, revoking Aeroflot's license to operate flights into and out of the United States following the downing of Korean Air Lines Flight 007 by the Soviet Air Force. At the start of the 1990s Aeroflot reorganised again giving more autonomy to territorial divisions. REG Davies, former curator of the Smithsonian Institution, claims that by 1992 Aeroflot had over 600,000 people operating over 10,000 aircraft.[13]:92,94

Other functions

Aeroflot also performed other functions, including air ambulance; aerial application; heavy lifting for the Soviet Space Agency; offshore oil platform support; exploration and aeromagnetic survey for natural resources; support for construction projects; transport of military troops and supplies (as an adjunct to the Soviet Air Force); atmospheric research; and remote area patrol. It operated hundreds of helicopters and cargo aircraft in addition to civil airliners. It also operated the Soviet equivalent of a presidential aircraft and other VIP transports of government and communist party officials.[6][13]:94

Aeroflot was also responsible for such services as ice patrol in the Arctic Ocean and escorting of ships through frozen seas; oil exploration; power line surveillance; and transportation and heavy lifting support on construction projects. For the latter tasks, Aeroflot used, in addition to smaller helicopters, the Mil Mi-10 flying crane capable of lifting 11,000 to 14,000 kilograms (24,000 to 31,000 lb). Hauling of heavy cargo, including vehicles, was performed by the world's largest operational helicopter, the Mil Mi-26. Its unusual eight-blade rotor enabled it to lift a maximum payload of some twenty tons.[6]

The medium- and long-range passenger- and cargo aircraft of Aeroflot were also part of the strategic air transport reserve, ready to provide immediate airlift support to the armed forces. Short-range aircraft and helicopters were available for appropriate military support missions.

Post-Soviet Aeroflot

In the early 1990s, the Soviet Union underwent massive political upheavals, culminating in the dissolution of the State. Former republics of the Soviet Union declared their independence during January 1990 December 1991, resulting in the establishment of several independent countries, along with fifteen republics and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). Up until that time, Aeroflot had been the only establishment providing air services throughout the Soviet Union, but with its breakup Aeroflot branches of these countries began their own services, and the airline itself came under control of Russia, the largest of the CIS republics, and was renamed Aeroflot – Russian International Airlines (ARIA).[16][17][18] In 1992 Aeroflot was divided into a number of regional airlines,[19] whereas international routes were operated by ARIA.[18] Smaller regional airlines which emerged from the old Aeroflot were sometimes referred to as Babyflots;[16]:2 Bashkirian Airlines, Krasnoyarsk Airlines, Moscow Airways and Tatarstan Airlines were among the carriers that were formed from former Aeroflot directorates.[20]

In 1994, Aeroflot was registered as a joint-stock company and the government sold off 49% of its stake to Aeroflot employees. During the 1990s, Aeroflot was primarily focused on international flights from Moscow. However, by the end of the decade Aeroflot started an expansion in the domestic market. In 2000 the company name was changed to Aeroflot – Russian Airlines to reflect the change in the company strategy.[21] The Aeroflot fleet shrank dramatically in the post-Soviet era, dropping from 5,400 planes in 1991 to 115 in 1996.[22]

Since the dissolution, Aeroflot has been actively working towards promoting and redefining itself as a safe and reliable airline.[23] In the early 2000s, the airline hired British consultants for rebranding.[24] From the start, plans were afoot to replace the hammer and sickle logo, a symbol of Soviet communism; despite this the logo was not scrapped, as it was the most recognisable symbol of the company for over 70 years.[24] A new livery and uniforms for flight attendants were designed and a promotional campaign launched in 2003.[25]

Its fleet has undergone a major reorganisation during which most of the Soviet aircraft were replaced by Western-built jets; concerns over fuel consumption rather than safety concerns were cited for such a move.[26] Airbus A319s and A320s for short-haul flights in Europe; and Boeing 767s and Airbus A330s for long-haul routes; were gradually incorporated into the fleet. In the spring of 2004 an expansion on the domestic market was undertaken, aiming to gain 30% share by 2010 (as of 2006 it held approximately 9%). The first task was to outperform S7 Airlines, a major rival and the leader in the domestic market. On 29 July 2004 a new corporate slogan was adopted: "Sincerely Yours. Aeroflot".[27]

In April 2006 (2006-04),[28] Aeroflot became the tenth airline to join SkyTeam,[29] and the first air carrier in the former Soviet Union to do so.[8] The company announced its plan to increase cargo operations. It registered the Aeroflot-Cargo trademark in 2006.[30] During that year Aeroflot carried 7,290,000 passengers and 145,300 tons of mail and cargo[31] to 89 destinations in 47 countries.[32] It saw improvements in its earnings and number of passengers carried. The net profit reached $309.4 million (RUB 7.98 billion) in 2006, a 32.3% increase from 2005 earnings of only $234 million (RUB6.03 billion). The revenue for the same 20052006 period rose by 13.5% to reach $2.77 billion with an 8.7% gain in passenger numbers.[33] Aeroflot became the sole shareholder of Donaviaa domestic airline then-named Aeroflot-Don[34]in December 2006 (2006-12), when it boosted its stake in the company from 51% to 100%;[35] soon afterwards, Aeroflot-Nord was created following the buyout of Arkhangelsk Airlines.[36] At March 2007, Aeroflot was owned by the Russian Government via Rosimushchestvo (51.17%), National Reserve Corporation (27%) and employees and others (19%), and had 14,900 employees.[37]

In February 2010 (2010-02), the Russian government announced that all regional airlines owned by the state through the holding company Rostechnologii would be consolidated with the national carrier Aeroflot in order to increase the airlines' financial viability.[39] The merger was completed in late November 2011 (2011-11) in a deal worth US$81 million, Aeroflot's sister company Aeroflot-Finance became the major shareholder of Vladivostok Avia, Saravia and Rossiya Airlines, and the sole shareholder of both SAT Airlines and Orenair.[40] It was reported in January 2012 (2012-01) that Saravia was sold to private investors, as the recent-acquired regional airline was not in line with Aeroflot's business strategy.[41] It was reported in June 2013 (2013-06) that in the third quarter of the same year Aeroflot would combine its subsidiaries Vladivostok Air and SAT Airlines into a new subsidiary regional carrier based in the Russian Far East.[42] The subsidiary was effectively created in September 2013 (2013-09) and was originally named Taiga Airline before later being renamed Aurora Airline.[43][44] The new company, 51%-owned by Aeroflot, was expected to link Moscow with the Russian Far East, whereas SAT Airlines and Vladivostok Avia were expected to cease operations in early 2014.[45]

In June 2013, during the World Airline Awards which took place at the 50th Le Bourget air show, Aeroflot was awarded the international prize as the best air carrier in Eastern Europe.[46] In October, the company introduced an affiliated low-cost carrier (LCC), Dobrolet.[47][48] The LCC started operations in June 2014 (2014-06);[49] they ceased on 4 August 2014 (2014-08-04) owing to EU sanctions over the airline launching flights to Crimea.[50][51] In late August 2014 (2014-08), Aeroflot announced the launch of a new LCC in October 2014 (2014-10) to replace Dobrolet; it would use aircraft transferred from Orenair.[52] The new LCC, named Pobeda, started operations from Vnukovo Airport in December 2014 (2014-12);[53][54] it had plans to fly to Belgorod, Kazan, Perm, Samara, Surgut, Tyumen, Ufa, Volgograd and Yekaterinburg.[55]

In March 2014 as a response to 2014 Ukrainian revolution the company announced rerouting their flights to avoid flying over the territory of Ukraine. The announcement (together with worse than expected financial results) caused an almost 10% drop in the share price of the company.[56][57] Also in March 2014 (2014-03), Aeroflot's flight designator SU was adopted by its subsidiary Rossiya.[38] In September 2015, Aeroflot agreed to acquire 75% of Transaero Airlines for the symbolic price of one ruble,[58] but abandoned the plan later after failing to come to terms on a takeover.[59] The carrier did take over a number of Transaero's aircraft by assuming its leases after the defunct airline's collapse. This introduced the Boeing 747 and Boeing 777 to Aeroflot's fleet. In addition, the company suggested that it would cancel some of its jet orders as a result of the newly assumed aircraft.[60]

Following a prior announcement, Aeroflot's subsidiaries Rossiya Airlines, Donavia and Orenair combined their operations in late March 2016 (2016-03). Orenair's AOC was cancelled by Russian authorities in late May 2016 (2016-05).[61][62] Aeroflot filed both Donavia and Orenair for bankruptcy in January 2017.[61] Orenair and Donavia were formally declared bankrupt in February 2017 and August 2017, respectively.[63]

Corporate affairs


The headquarters of Aeroflot are located in Arbat District, Central Administrative Okrug, Moscow.[64] By 2009 Aeroflot began leasing 7,000 square metres (75,000 sq ft) of space from a class A office building on Arbat Street owned by Midland Development. As of that year Aeroflot had plans to build a dedicated 35,000-square-metre (380,000 sq ft) headquarters in proximity to Sheremetyevo Airport.[65]

Key people

As of December 2014, Aeroflot's CEO position is held by Vitaly Savelyev.[53] Savelyev was appointed on 10 April 2009 (2009-04-10) and succeeded Valery Okulov. Expiring in April 2014 (2014-04), The Russian government extended Savelyev's appointment for another five years.[66] In late August 2018, Savelyev was re-confirmed in the CEO position for a further five-year period.[67] In December 2018, the Russian government appointed Russia's Minister of Transport Evgeny Ditrich as chairman of the board.[68]

Ownership and subsidiaries

As of December 2013, Aeroflot was 51% state-owned.[69] The Aeroflot Group, Russia's largest airline holding company, included several subsidiaries: Pobeda, Rossiya, Donavia, Orenair, and Aurora.[70] At that time, the Aeroflot Group employed 30,328; 17,678 of these people worked for Aeroflot JSC.[71]

Aeroflot Airline carried 35.8 million passengers during 2018, an 8.9% increase year-on-year (YOY). The Aeroflot Group, comprising Aeroflot Airline, Aurora, Pobeda and Rossiya, carried 55.7 million passengers during the same period, 11% up YOY. At December 2018, the Group fleet totalled 366 aircraft, of which 253 corresponded to Aeroflot Airline.[72]


In 2016 the company decided to link the pay of its flight attendants to their dress size. All the flight attendants were photographed and measured, and some were weighed. Women above a Russian size 48 were barred from international flights.[73] According to the flight attendants' trade union the policy affected about 600 Aeroflot attendants. The company successfully defended itself in court in April 2017 by saying that a survey of Aeroflot passengers showed that "92% want to see stewardesses who fit into the clothes sizes we are talking about here"[74] and that every extra kilogramme meant spending an extra 800 roubles per year on fuel.[75] The company denied all the accusations of discrimination.[76] In September 2017 the appeal court decided that requirements banning employment by women who wore large sizes was unenforceable and ordered compensation for Yevgenia Magurina, a flight attendant who filed a discrimination suit.[77] Two women were awarded token compensation, but the court did not rule explicitly that the policy was discriminatory.[78]

In November 2018, the company's executive director Vitaly Savelyev signed new rules, according to which employees of the Moscow office of the airline were forbidden to bring and use smartphones at work.[79]


As of September 2018, Aeroflot served 146 destinations in 52 countries.[4]

Codeshare agreements

As of October 2019, Aeroflot has codeshare agreements with the following airlines:[80]



For most of its history, Aeroflot's fleet consisted almost entirely of aircraft built by Soviet manufacturers such as Antonov, Ilyushin, and Tupolev. Following the Soviet Union's dissolution and subsequent partition of the airline, Aeroflot began replacing its old Soviet aircraft with modern Western and new-generation Russian models.

The Aeroflot fleet comprises the following aircraft (as of October 2019):[91]

Aircraft In service Orders Passengers Notes
B C E Total
Airbus A320-200 78 20 120 140 One in 1950s retro livery[92]
One in SkyTeam livery[91]
Two in PFC CSKA Moskva livery[93]
8 150 158
Airbus A320neo 6[94]
Airbus A321-200 34 28 142 170 One in Manchester United livery[95]
One in 95 years jubilee livery[96][97]
16 167 183
Airbus A321neo 3[94]
Deliveries scheduled from August 2020.
Airbus A330-200 5 30 199 229
34 207 241
Airbus A330-300 17 28 268 296 One in SkyTeam livery[98]
36 265 301
34 268 302
Airbus A350-900 15[99] 28 24 264 316[100] Deliveries from 2020 to 2023[101]
First commercial flight to take place on 29 March 2020.[102]
Boeing 737-800 47 20 138 158[103] One in SkyTeam livery[91]
Boeing 777-300ER 19 3[104] 30 48 324 402 Deliveries from 2018 to 2021.[105]
One in SkyTeam livery.[106]
Irkut MC-21-300 50[107] 16 159 175[108]
Sukhoi Superjet 100-95 49 100[109] 12 75 87 One in SkyTeam livery[98]
Total 249 193
Aeroflot former mainline aircraft since 1954
Aircraft Introduced Retired Notes
Airbus A310 1992[110] 2005
Airbus A319[111] Unknown Unknown
Antonov An-2 1948 Unknown
Antonov An-10 1959 1973
Antonov An-24 1962 Unknown
Antonov An-124 1980 2000 Cargo aircraft
Boeing 737-300F 2008 2009 Cargo aircraft
Boeing 737-400 1998[112] 2004
Boeing 767-300ER[113] 1994[114] 2015[114]
Boeing 767-300ERF[114] 1994 2014 Cargo aircraft
Boeing 777-200ER 1998 2005
Ilyushin Il-12 1947 1970
Ilyushin Il-14 1954 Unknown
Ilyushin Il-18 1958 Unknown
Ilyushin Il-62 1967 2002
Ilyushin Il-76 1979 2004 Cargo aircraft
Ilyushin Il-86 1980[115]:67 2006[116]
Ilyushin Il-96-300 1993[117] 2014[118]
McDonnell Douglas DC-10 1995 2009 Cargo aircraft
McDonnell Douglas MD-11F 2008[119] 2013[120] Cargo aircraft
Tupolev Tu-104 1956 1979
Tupolev Tu-114 1961 1976
Tupolev Tu-124 1962 1980[121]
Tupolev Tu-134 1967 2007[122]
Tupolev Tu-144 1977 1978
Tupolev Tu-154 1968 2009
Tupolev Tu-204 1990 2005
Yakovlev Yak-40 1966 1995
Yakovlev Yak-42 1980[123] 2000
History and recent developments

During the Soviet era, almost all Aeroflot's airliners were built by Soviet manufacturers. During the 1940s and the early 1950s, the main aircraft was the Lisunov Li-2 a license-built version of the Douglas DC-3. The first to be produced in the Soviet Union was completed in 1939. DC-3s modified by fitting Soviet-made engines, named the PS-84, were also used later. The Li-2 would be replaced by the Ilyushin Il-12, which entered service in 1947, and the Ilyushin Il-14, which entered service in 1954. Aeroflot also operated thousands of the Antonov An-2 STOL biplane (first flying in 1947), in passenger and cargo roles. The An-2 remained in service until the 1980s.

Aeroflot began operating the Tupolev Tu-104, reportedly named Silver Arrow,[124] with at least three in service between Moscow and the Russian Far East by June 1956 (1956-06).[125] The Tu-104 was the USSR's first jet airliner.[126]:615 The first two routes on which it was deployed were the MoscowIrkutsk and the MoscowYakutsk runs;[124] in September 1956 (1956-09), the MoscowTiflis route became the third scheduled service flown with the aircraft.[127] Likewise, MoscowPrague was the first international route served with the Silver Arrow.[124]

In 1962, Aeroflot began operating the Tupolev Tu-124, the smaller version of the Tu-104, on regional routes. These were later replaced by the Tupolev Tu-134, which entered service in 1967. The Tupolev Tu-114, originally used to transport Soviet leaders and once the world's largest commercial aircraft, came into service on 24 April 1961 (1961-04-24) on the MoscowKhabarovsk route.[128][129] It also served international routes, such as MoscowTokyo in conjunction with Japan Airlines,[130] as well as the MoscowHavana route, which started on 7 January 1963 (1963-01-07)the airline's longest non-stop service at that time.[129][131] The first Ilyushin Il-62 long-range four-engined airliner entered service with Aeroflot in 1967, with an inaugural flight from Moscow to Montreal on 15 September.[132] It was complemented, in 1972, by medium-range Tupolev Tu-154. This jet is the most popular Russian airliner, with more than 1,000 made. The Tu-154M variant was delivered to Aeroflot in 1984.[123]

The carrier started flying the supersonic Tupolev Tu-144 on freighter services in 1975.[133] On 1 November 1977 (1977-11-01), the aircraft was deployed on the 1,750-nautical-mile (3,240 km; 2,010 mi) long Moscow-DomodedovoAlma-Ata route on a regular basis,[134] yet these services were discontinued in May 1978 (1978-05).[135] That month, an aircraft of the type was written off after an emergency landing following an electrical failure, withdrawing political support to the project and putting an end to the production.[136] Despite official versions indicating the indefinite suspension of supersonic flights within the Soviet Union, a re-engined version of the aircraft was put on a test flight between Moscow and Khabarovsk in June 1979 (1979-06),[137] and the 3,750-mile (6,040 km) long route was later covered with scheduled services;[138] it was not a nonstop flight, however, since the aircraft had to make a refuelling stop, as the engines consumed more fuel than expected.[136]

First flown in March 1975 (1975-03), the 120-seater Yakovlev Yak-42 entered service with Aeroflot in 1980.[123] The 350-seater Ilyushin Il-86, the first Russian-made wide-body aircraft,[139] had its maiden flight in December 1976 (1976-12),[123][115] and entered scheduled services with the carrier on the Moscow-VnukovoTashkent run in 1981.[140][note 1] The aircraft was phased out by the end of 2006.[116]

The first Western-made aircraft, the Airbus A310, was incorporated into the fleet in 1992. This milestone also made Aeroflot the first Russian customer for Airbus.[142][110] The first example of the Ilyushin Il-96, which was also the first Soviet fly-by-wire aircraft, had its maiden flight in 1988, and was certificated in December 1992 (1992-12);[141] the first Aeroflot Il-96-300 entered the fleet in 1993,[117] and was initially deployed on the MoscowNew York City route in July that year.[143]:50 Pending approval for an Ex-Im Bank financing package, a contract worth US$1.5 billion for the acquisition of twenty Il-96s, including ten Il-96T cargo aircraft and ten Il-96Ms that were initially slated for delivery between 1996 and 1999, was signed in June 1995 (1995-06).[144] The Ex-Im Bank approved the loan in early 1996.[145] Boeing objected to the deal, but the dispute was later settled following an Aeroflot order for ten Boeing 737-400s placed in April 1997 (1997-04) in a deal worth US$440 million[146] that were granted a tax exemption by the Russian government; nevertheless, the financing was blocked again when four Boeing 767-300ERs also ordered by Aeroflot were not included in the accorded exemption.[147] Later on these four aircraft were also exempted from paying customs taxes.[148] The first of these Boeing 767-300ERs commenced operating in August 1999 (1999-08);[149] the airline had taken delivery of the first Boeing 737-400 in May the same year.[112]

From 1998 to 2005, Aeroflot leased two Boeing 777s, using the type on routes to the USA.[150]

Matters came to a head in September 2006 as Aeroflot's board of directors convened to vote on the Boeing contract. This coincided with the USA imposing sanctions on various Russian companies (including a major aircraft maker, Sukhoi) for allegedly supplying Iran in violation of the US's Iran Nonproliferation Act of 2000 and with the Russian state-owned Vneshtorgbank buying 5% of the stock in EADS, the corporation behind Airbus. The State's representatives on the board abstained from the vote and another round of lobbying ensued, with Russian news sources reporting Aeroflot's efforts to placate the State by offering to order both 22 Boeing 787s and 22 Airbus 350s, effectively doubling its long-range fleet.[151] Banker Alexander Lebedev, the man behind National Reserve Corporation, reached a deal with Boeing to prolong the deadline, using his corporation's money.[152]

In March 2007 (2007-03), Aeroflot signed a memorandum of understanding with Airbus for the acquisition of 22 Airbus A350 XWBs,[153] and 10 Airbus A330-200s.[110][154] The transaction for the A350 XWBs was formalised late that year in a deal worth US$3.1 billion.[155] The handover of the first A350 XWB was due to take place in 2015. Delivery has been delayed by three years, with the first aircraft to enter the fleet in 2018.[156] A contract for the acquisition of 22 Boeing 787 Dreamliners was signed in June 2007 (2007-06),[157] reportedly consisting of Boeing 787-8s with deliveries starting in 2014;[158] in September the same year, Boeing officially announced that Aeroflot placed an order for these aircraft in a deal worth US$3.6 billion.[159] The Airbus A330 order was split into five A330-200s and five A330-300s, scheduled to arrive on an operating lease starting in late 2008. The first Airbus A330 entered the fleet in late 2008; it was an A330-200 and was initially put into service on the MoscowSt. Petersburg route for testing purposes.[160] Despite the A330s having been initially aimed at providing interim capacity ahead of the arrival of both the Airbus A350s and the Boeing 787s the company had previously ordered, the type has been gradually incorporated into the fleet on a long-term basis. During the 2015 Paris Air Show, Aeroflot cancelled the Dreamliner order.[161]

In May 2007 (2007-05), Finnair announced the sale of its last two self-owned McDonnell Douglas MD-11s to Aeroflot which became part of the Russian airline's cargo fleet in 2008 and 2009.[162] On 31 December 2007, Aeroflot retired the last Tupolev Tu-134 after 40 years in service;[122] the last flight flew the KaliningradMoscow route.[163] Aeroflot was forced to withdraw these aircraft from service due to noise restrictions. Fourteen Tu-134s comprised the type's fleet by that time; they were offered for sale to the sister companies.[164] The retirement of the last Tupolev Tu-154 occurred on 14 January 2010, after 40 years of service; the last flight the type operated was YekaterinburgMoscow, taking place on 31 December 2009.[165]

In September 2005, the company suspended direct flights between Moscow and Seattle.[166]

In 2005, Aeroflot ordered 30 Sukhoi Superjet 100 aircraft with 98 seats in one class. Later, the airline decided to upgrade the avionics (FMS and weather radar) and modify the aircraft configuration to have 87 seats in two classes, with extra cabin crew seat, lavatory and galley. To avoid delivery delays, the first 10 SSJ100s were delivered with the original "light" specification; subsequent aircraft were updated ("full").

In the first half of 2014, Sukhoi began to replace Aeroflot's "light" aircraft by "full" versions.[167] The last "full" version was delivered in June 2014; "light" aircraft are operated by other Russian airlines.[168]

In July 2010 (2010-07), Aeroflot announced a new A330 order during the Farnborough Airshow, this time for 11 A330-300s.[170] Also in July 2010 (2010-07), Russian prime minister Vladimir Putin pressured Aeroflot to buy Russian-made aircraft for future expansion and fleet renewal.[171][172] On 1 September 2010, Aeroflot announced that it had plans to order a total of 126 Russian-built aircraft by 2020. The aircraft to be purchased are Irkut MS-21s, Sukhoi Superjet 100s, Antonov An-140s, and Antonov An-148s. The aircraft are to be used for fleet replacement in Aeroflot, as well as six other airlines of which Aeroflot is taking control.[171] In February 2011 (2011-02), the carrier ordered eight Boeing 777-300ERs;[169] later that year the order was boosted to sixteen aircraft.[173] Aeroflot became the second worldwide operator of the Sukhoi Superjet 100 when Sukhoi delivered the first aircraft of the type to the company in June 2011 (2011-06).[174] The first Boeing 777-300ER was handed over to the airline on 30 January 2013. Following delivery, it was planned to deploy the aircraft on the MoscowBangkok route, yet certification issues postponed these plans for days,[175][176] as permission to operate the aircraft was granted a few days later.[177] In addition to the current firm contract for 30 Sukhoi Superjet 100 aircraft, Aeroflot signed a letter of intent for a further 20 of the aircraft, announced in 2015.[178]

Aeroflot retired its three McDonnell Douglas MD-11 freighters from active service in July 2013 (2013-07) citing their operation as no longer profitable.[120]

In 2015 the company expanded its fleet with three Boeing 777-300ERs, six 737-800s and four Sukhoi Superjets; and retired five Ilyushin Il-96s.[179] During the 2015 Paris Air Show, Aeroflot cancelled an order for 22 Boeing 787 Dreamliners.[161] In mid-2016 a deal for a further 10 leased Sukhoi Superjets was announced.[180] In November 2016, Aeroflot cancelled eight Airbus A350-800s from an order including these aircraft and 14 A350-900s and also announced that its cancelled Boeing 787 order would be transferred to Rostec subsidiary Avia Capital Services.[99][181][182]

Aeroflot firmed up an order for 20 Sukhoi Superjet 100s in July 2017 during the MAKS Air Show.[183] One month later, the airliner then approved plans to purchase additional 6 new Boeing 777-300ER to significantly strengthen the long-haul capabilities of its fleet, with deliveries of the aircraft scheduled from 2Q 2018 to 1Q 2019.[184][185][186] This is followed by another order of 100 Sukhoi Superjet 100 planes, made on 10 September 2018.[187] In addition to the orders, Aeroflot started to phase out its Airbus A330s in October 2019, in anticipation of bringing the Airbus A350s into service.[188]

Frequent flyer programme

Aeroflot uses Aeroflot Bonus as their frequent-flyer programme. It has three levels:[189]

Aeroflot Bonus levels
Level Benefits Requirements SkyTeam status
  • No benefits on Regular Level
Travelers can start their participation in Aeroflot Bonus Programme from the age of 2 (Aeroflot Junior)  
  • Tier Bonus Miles  25% of the flown distance
  • Preferred Seating
  • Priority Check-In
  • Extra 10 kg baggage allowance or 1 piece on routes where piece concept systems is applicable (Only on Aeroflot regular flights)
  • Boarding with first and business class passengers
  • Priority reservation waitlisting
25,000 miles (40,000 km) or
25 flight segments during calendar year
  • Tier Bonus Miles  50% of the flown distance
  • Priority Check-In
  • The opportunity "Comfort +" is given free of charge[190]
  • Extra 20 kg baggage allowance or 2 piece on routes where piece concept systems is applicable (Only on Aeroflot regular flights)
  • Preferred Seating
  • Lounge Access
  • Invite a traveling companion to Business Class lounges
  • Priority Airport Standby
  • High priority waitlisting (above Silver)
  • Boarding with first and business class passengers
  • Priority Baggage Handling
50,000 miles (80,000 km) or
50 flight segments during calendar year
Elite Plus

Sponsorship and promotion agreements

As of July 2013, Aeroflot is the official carrier of Manchester United.[191] The agreement is the first ever sponsorship Manchester United has signed with a Russian company.[192]

Accidents and incidents

See also


  1. ^ It was also reported that the aircraft began scheduled services with Aeroflot in December 1980 (1980-12).[123][115]:67[141]


 This article incorporates public domain material from the Library of Congress Country Studies website http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/.

  1. ^ "Company News - Rossiya Airlines, Aeroflot Group's Newly Merged Regional Carrier, Begins Flights - Aeroflot".
  2. ^ https://www.xe.com/currencyconverter/convert/?Amount=533000000000&From=RUB&To=EUR
  3. ^ a b c Montag-Girmes, Polina (1 March 2018). "Higher fuel prices contribute to Aeroflot Group's 41% net profit loss in 2017". Air Transport World. Archived from the original on 5 March 2018.
  4. ^ a b Hofmann, Kurt (10 September 2018). "Vietnam Airlines, Aeroflot to expand cooperation". Air Transport World. Archived from the original on 17 September 2018. Retrieved 17 September 2018.
  5. ^ Blachly, Linda (1 September 2015). "Russia's Aeroflot to acquire Transaero Airlines". Air Transport World. Archived from the original on 2 September 2015. Russias largest airline, Aeroflot, will acquire Transaero Airlines, according to a Transaero statement. 
  6. ^ a b c "Soviet Union". Lcweb2.loc.gov. Retrieved 12 July 2011.
  7. ^ Smith, Patrick (9 March 2004). "Ask the pilot". Salon.com. Archived from the original on 16 October 2007. Retrieved 21 August 2007.
  8. ^ a b "Russia's Aeroflot Ranked Close to World Best Airlines". Kommersant. 7 August 2007. Archived from the original on 14 October 2012.
  9. ^ Blachly, Linda (5 December 2017). "Aircraft Briefs-Dec. 5, 2017". Air Transport World. Archived from the original on 2 January 2018. AviaAM Leasing handed in two new Airbus A320s to Russian flag carrier Aeroflot.
  10. ^ Ideas, KMP (7 February 2018). "Aeroflot: A Very Interesting 2018". Seeking Alpha.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai MacDonald, Hugh (1975). Aeroflot: Soviet air transport since 1923. Putnam. ISBN 978-0-370-00117-3.
  12. ^ , . " : """. - Sostav.ru. Retrieved 1 January 2017.
  13. ^ a b c Davies, R.E.G. (1992). Aeroflot: An Airline and Its Aircraft (First ed.). Rockville, Maryland: Paladwr Press. ISBN 978-0-9626483-1-1.
  14. ^ "Three questions to Boris Bugayev, the Minister of Civil Aviation of the USSR". Aeroflot '71. Aviareklama. 1971. p. 3.
  15. ^ "Aeroflot - Russian airline".
  16. ^ a b Stanley, Alessandra (29 June 1997). "Hold the Jokes, Please: Aeroflot Buffs Its Image". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 20 June 2014.
  17. ^
  18. ^ a b
  19. ^
  20. ^
  21. ^ [1] Aeroflot official website Archived 21 November 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  22. ^ Stanley, Alessandra (29 June 1997). "Hold the Jokes, Please: Aeroflot Buffs Its Image". The New York Times.
  23. ^
  24. ^ a b "No more service with a scowl". BBC News. 29 April 2003. Archived from the original on 20 March 2012. Retrieved 9 September 2012.
  25. ^ "Aeroflot Sticks By Hammer and Sickle". The Moscow Times.
  26. ^ Kramer, Andrew E. (28 July 2009). "Aeroflot Sheds Its Soviet Legacy and Turns to a Western Fleet". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 5 September 2012. Retrieved 9 September 2012.
  27. ^ "Aeroflot new slogan". Aeroflot. 29 July 2004. Archived from the original on 20 June 2014.
  28. ^ "Aeroflot joins SkyTeam". Air Transport World. 17 April 2006. Archived from the original on 6 June 2012. Retrieved 1 September 2012.
  29. ^ "Aeroflot Becomes 10th Airline to Join SkyTeam". The Moscow Times. 17 April 2006. Archived from the original on 20 June 2014.
  30. ^ Russian Aeroflot-Cargo official website Archived 21 March 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  31. ^ Aeroflot  Press releases (24 January 2007). "Aeroflot Board of Directors Summarised The Business Results For 2006". Department of Public Relations. Archived from the original on 28 September 2007. Retrieved 23 April 2007.
  32. ^ Aeroflot  Press releases (14 March 2007). "Aeroflot has received one more new A320 airliner" (in Russian). Department of Public Relations. Archived from the original on 28 September 2007. Retrieved 23 April 2007.
  33. ^ Airfinance Journal (11 May 2007). "Aeroflot Increases Earnings". Retrieved 10 June 2007.(subscription required)
  34. ^ Kaminski-Morrow, David (22 September 2009). "Russia's Aeroflot-Don to rebrand as Donavia". Flightglobal.com. Air Transport Intelligence news. Archived from the original on 23 January 2013. Retrieved 7 September 2012.
  35. ^ "Other News 01/12/2007". Air Transport World. 15 January 2007. Archived from the original on 16 June 2012. Retrieved 7 September 2012.
  36. ^ Endres, Günter (19 February 2007). "Arranged marriages: Russia focus". London: Flightglobal.com. Airline Business. Archived from the original on 23 May 2013. Retrieved 7 September 2012. It has created Aeroflot-Don at Rostov in the south by taking over Donavia, acquiring full control in December 2006, and then setting up Aeroflot-Nord in the north by acquiring the assets of Arkhangelsk Airlines.
  37. ^ "Directory: World Airlines". Flight International. 3 April 2007. p. 47.
  38. ^ a b Montag-Girmes, Polina (23 July 2015). "Russia's Rossiya Airlines names new chairman". Air Transport World. Archived from the original on 26 July 2015. 
  39. ^ "Russia to corporatize Rossiya air carrier, merge with Aeroflot | Business | RIA Novosti". En.rian.ru. Archived from the original on 6 June 2011. Retrieved 12 July 2011.
  40. ^ Borodina, Polina (22 November 2011). "Russia's Rostechnology finalizes transfer of five regional carriers to Aeroflot". Air Transport World. Archived from the original on 16 June 2012. Retrieved 9 September 2012.
  41. ^ Borodina, Polina (2 January 2012). "Aeroflot sells regional subsidiary". Air Transport World. Archived from the original on 11 November 2012. 
  42. ^ Borodina, Polina (13 June 2013). "Aeroflot to launch Far East subsidiary in 3Q". Air Transport World. Archived from the original on 30 October 2013.
  43. ^ Borodina, Polina (25 October 2013). "Aeroflot provides a $13.5 million loan for Far East subsidiary". Air Transport World. Archived from the original on 30 October 2013.
  44. ^ Borodina, Polina (10 September 2013). "Russia's Aeroflot creates Far East subsidiary Taiga Airline". Air Transport World. Archived from the original on 21 September 2013.
  45. ^ Borodina, Polina (6 November 2013). "Aeroflot subsidiary Aurora Airline set to launch operations". Air Transport World. Archived from the original on 7 November 2013.
  46. ^ "Aeroflot recognized as best air carrier in Eastern Europe". Itar-Tass. 18 June 2013. Archived from the original on 20 June 2014.
  47. ^ "Aeroflot Introduces New Low-Cost Airline Dobrolet" (Press release). Aeroflot. 10 October 2013. Archived from the original on 28 October 2013.
  48. ^ "Aeroflot Introduces New Low-Cost Airline Dobrolet". Centre for Aviation. 11 October 2013. Archived from the original on 10 June 2014.
  49. ^ Borodina, Polina (10 June 2014). "Aeroflot subsidiary Dobrolet launches flights". Air Transport World. Archived from the original on 10 June 2014.
  50. ^ Borodina, Polina (4 August 2014). "Russia's Dobrolet ceases operations due to EU sanctions". Air Transport World. Archived from the original on 27 August 2014. 
  51. ^ Kaminski-Morrow, David (3 August 2014). "Dobrolet halts flights as EU sanctions block jet lease". Flightglobal. London. Archived from the original on 27 August 2014. 
  52. ^ Borodina, Polina (26 August 2014). "Aeroflot to launch new LCC subsidiary". Air Transport World. Archived from the original on 27 August 2014. 
  53. ^ a b "Aeroflot acts to relaunch its LCC project with Pobeda after Group profits fell again in 3Q2014". CAPA Centre for Aviation. 3 December 2014. Archived from the original on 3 December 2014. 
  54. ^ Borodina, Polina (1 December 2014). "Aeroflot subsidiary Pobeda launches flights". Air Transport World. Archived from the original on 2 December 2014. 
  55. ^ Borodina, Polina (16 October 2014). "New Aeroflot budget carrier discloses network". Air Transport World. Archived from the original on 18 October 2014. 
  56. ^ " "" 9,8%". Novaya Gazeta. 13 March 2014.
  57. ^ " "" 9,8% 52,8 ". ITAR-TASS. 13 March 2014.
  58. ^ "Aeroflot to Buy Transaero in Tie-Up of Russia's Biggest Airlines". Bloomberg. 1 September 2015.
  59. ^ Soldatkin, Vladimir (1 October 2015). "Russia's Aeroflot says drops plans to acquire Transaero [Update 1]". Reuters. Retrieved 15 December 2015.
  60. ^ Jasper, Christopher; Pronina, Lyubov (14 April 2016). "Aeroflot's Transaero Jet-Rush to Crimp Airbus, Boeing Orders". Bloomberg. Retrieved 19 August 2016.
  61. ^ a b Montag-Girmes, Polina (17 January 2017). "Aeroflot files for bankruptcy of Orenair, Donavia subsidiaries". Air Transport World. Archived from the original on 19 January 2017.
  62. ^ Montag-Girmes, Polina (6 June 2016). "Russian authorities cancel Orenair's AOC". Air Transport World. Archived from the original on 18 June 2016. 
  63. ^ Montag-Girmes, Polina. "Russian court declares Aeroflot subsidiary Donavia bankrupt". Air Transport World. Archived from the original on 16 August 2017.
  64. ^ "Procurement Notice." Aeroflot. Retrieved 25 April 2014. "119002, Moscow, Arbat Street 10"
  65. ^ "Aeroflot renting luxury office in Arbat Street" (Archive). PMR Ltd. 19 July 2009. Retrieved 25 April 2014.
  66. ^ Borodina, Polina (18 September 2013). "Saveliev to lead Aeroflot for next five years". Air Transport World. Archived from the original on 21 September 2013.
  67. ^ Montag-Girmes, Polina (29 August 2018). "Savelyev re-elected as Aeroflot CEO". Air Transport World. Archived from the original on 13 September 2018. Retrieved 13 September 2018.
  68. ^ Polina Montag-Girmes, Polina Montag-Girmes (12 December 2018). "Aeroflot Group makes management changes". Air Transport World. Archived from the original on 30 December 2018.
  69. ^ "Shareholder Structure". Aeroflot. Archived from the original on 3 November 2014. 
  70. ^ "Company Profile: Our alliance and partnerships". Aeroflot. Retrieved 3 November 2014.
  71. ^ "Aeroflot: strong profit growth in 9M2013. LCC subsidiary Dobrolet complements the team in early 2014". Centre for Aviation. 10 December 2013. Archived from the original on 3 April 2015. 
  72. ^ Montag-Girmes, Polina (30 January 2019). "Aeroflot Group traffic up 11% in 2018". Air Transport World. Archived from the original on 4 February 2019. Retrieved 6 February 2019.
  73. ^ "'Too fat to fly': Russian women fight job discrimination". BBC News. 14 September 2017. Retrieved 14 September 2017.
  74. ^ "Passengers don't want overweight flight crew, say Aeroflot officials after lawsuits". Guardian. 25 April 2017. Retrieved 14 September 2017.
  75. ^ "Aeroflot flight attendants lose discrimination case after being branded 'old, fat and ugly'". Independent. 21 April 2017. Retrieved 14 September 2017.
  76. ^ "Aeroflot comments on accusations of discrimination against staff". Aeroflot. 22 February 2017. Retrieved 14 September 2017.
  77. ^ "Russian Flight Attendants Win Aeroflot Discrimination Case". Moscow Times. 6 September 2017. Retrieved 14 September 2017.
  78. ^ "Russian Aeroflot flight attendants win uniform discrimination case". DW. 7 September 2017. Retrieved 14 September 2017.
  79. ^ "Airline cancels passenger's elite membership over 'insulting' tweet". The Independent. 26 November 2018. Retrieved 17 October 2019.
  80. ^ "Aeroflot code-share flights". Aeroflot.
  81. ^ Montag-Girmes, Polina (4 June 2018). "Aeroflot to codeshare with Aerolineas Argentinas". Air Transport World. Archived from the original on 17 June 2018.
  82. ^ Liu, Jim (21 December 2019). "Aeroflot / AeroMexico begins codeshare partnership from late-Dec 2018". Routesonline. Retrieved 11 January 2019.
  83. ^ Liu, Jim (26 April 2019). "Aeroflot / AeroMexico expands codeshare network from April 2019". Routesonline. Retrieved 26 April 2019.
  84. ^ Liu, Jim (25 April 2019). "Aeroflot expands Bangkok Airways codeshare to Vietnam from April 2019". Routesonline. Retrieved 25 April 2019.
  85. ^ Liu, Jim (20 July 2018). "China Southern expands Aeroflot European codeshare network from July 2018". Routesonline. Retrieved 20 July 2018.
  86. ^ Liu, Jim (16 July 2018). "Correction: Korean Air / Aeroflot extends codeshare partnership from July 2018". Routesonline. Retrieved 16 July 2018.
  87. ^ Liu, Jim (8 July 2019). "Aeroflot / LOT Polish expands codeshare network from July 2019". Routesonline. Retrieved 8 July 2019.
  88. ^ "Aeroflot and Vietnam Airlines start code-share programme". RusAviaInsider. 13 June 2019.
  89. ^ "Aeroflot Launches Codeshare Partnership with Vietnam Airlines". RusAviaInsider. 13 June 2019.
  90. ^ Liu, Jim (26 June 2019). "Aeroflot / Vietnam Airlines begins codeshare partnership from June 2019". Routesonline. Retrieved 26 June 2019.
  91. ^ a b c "Aircraft Fleet". Aeroflot. 1 October 2019. Archived from the original on 12 October 2019.
  92. ^ Drum, Bruce (31 May 2013). "Aeroflot puts its Airbus A320 1956 retrojet into revenue service". World Airline News. Retrieved 19 August 2016.
  93. ^ "A320 with CSKA Moscow livery joins Aeroflot fleet". 26 July 2016.
  94. ^ a b ES (16 July 2019). "Aeroflot to acquire six Airbus A320neo aircraft". Russian Aviation Insider.
  95. ^ "Aeroflot unveils Manchester United livery on new Airbus A321". 23 December 2013.
  96. ^ """ ". lenta.ru. 4 May 2018.
  97. ^ ": A321 "" 95- ". ato.ru. 3 May 2018.
  98. ^ a b "SkyTeam livery fact sheet" (PDF). SkyTeam. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 August 2016.
  99. ^ a b Montag-Girmes, Polina (11 January 2017). "Aeroflot cancels eight A350-800s". Air Transport World. Archived from the original on 12 January 2017.
  100. ^ Liu, Jim (19 June 2019). "Aeroflot outlines A350 long-haul service in S20". Routesonline. Retrieved 19 June 2019.
  101. ^ Public Joint Stock Company Aeroflot - Russian Airlines: Condensed Consolidated Interim Financial Statements as at and for the 6 months ended 30 June 2017 (PDF) (Report). Moscow: Aeroflot. 29 August 2017. p. 13. Retrieved 26 December 2017.
  102. ^ Finlay, Mark. "Aeroflot Will Begin Airbus A350 Operations In Early 2020". Simple Flying. Retrieved 28 October 2019.
  103. ^ Blachly, Linda (9 July 2015). "Aircraft News-July 9, 2015". Air Transport World. Archived from the original on 13 July 2015. Retrieved 5 October 2016. Aeroflot took delivery of its 10th Boeing 737-800. The aircraft is configured in a two-class composition with 20 seats in business class and 138 seats in economy class.
  104. ^ "Boeing: Commercial". www.boeing.com. Retrieved 8 August 2018.
  105. ^ "Russian airline orders six 777s, helping bridge Boeing's delivery gap". The Seattle Times. 24 September 2017.
  106. ^ "Aeroflot paints new Boeing 737-800 in SkyTeam livery".
  107. ^ "Aeroflot sends plans to buy local aircraft to government". Moscow: RIA Novosti. 19 August 2010. Archived from the original on 23 May 2013.
  108. ^ """ -21 2018 ". . Retrieved 11 June 2016.
  109. ^ "Aeroflot Sukhoi Superjet 100 fleet grows to 50 russian regional aircraft". Russian Aviation Insider. 24 September 2018.
  110. ^ a b c Moore, Victoria (23 March 2007). "Aeroflot to acquire 22 A350XWBs and 10 A330s". London: Flightglobal. Flight International. Archived from the original on 23 May 2013.
  111. ^ "Aircraft Fleet". Aeroflot. Archived from the original on 5 May 2016.
  112. ^ a b "Aeroflot Takes Delivery of its First Boeing 737-400" (Press release). Boeing. 5 May 1998. Archived from the original on 6 November 2011. Retrieved 24 July 2013.
  113. ^ Yeo, Ghim-Lay (3 February 2010). "SINGAPORE 2010: Ameco Beijing signs MRO contracts with United and Aeroflot". Singapore: Flightglobal. Archived from the original on 21 December 2014. The MRO firm also inked a contract to provide C-checks on Aeroflot's four Boeing 767-300ER aircraft. 
  114. ^ a b c "Aeroflot 767 Fleet".
  115. ^ a b c
  116. ^ a b Straus, Brian (26 October 2006). "Aeroflot fleet renewal continues with end of IL-86s, lease of A321s". Air Transport World. Archived from the original on 6 June 2012.
  117. ^ a b "Russian carriers may lease 737s". Flight International: 18. 1622 June 1993. Archived from the original on 23 May 2013.
  118. ^ "The last flight of the IL-96-300 with Aeroflot. Moscow, Sheremetyevo Airport". OJSC "Ilyushin Aviation Complex. 30 March 2014. Retrieved 2 March 2015.
  119. ^ "Boeing and Aeroflot Cargo Commemorate MD-11BCF Service" (Press release). Boeing. 24 July 2008. Archived from the original on 24 July 2013. Retrieved 24 July 2013.
  120. ^ a b Borodina, Polina (23 July 2013). "Aeroflot ends MD-11 freighter operations". Air Transport World. Archived from the original on 26 September 2013.
  121. ^ "TUPOLEV TU-124 by Tupolev OKB". ASAP Aerospace. Retrieved 8 February 2017.
  122. ^ a b "Other News 02/16/2007". Air Transport World. 19 February 2007. Archived from the original on 6 June 2012.
  123. ^ a b c d e Kingsley-Jones, Max (1 September 1999). "Commercial Aircraft Directory: Part 2". London: Flightglobal. Flight International. Archived from the original on 23 May 2013.
  124. ^ a b c "World's second jet service". Flight: 659. 19 October 1956. Archived from the original on 23 May 2013.
  125. ^ "I.C.A.O. at Caracas". Flight: 854. 29 June 1956. Archived from the original on 23 May 2013.
  126. ^
  127. ^ "Brevities". Flight: 596. 5 October 1956. Archived from the original on 5 November 2012.
  128. ^ "Commercial Aircraft of the World... Tu-114". Flight International: 936. 26 November 1964. Archived from the original on 6 November 2012. Retrieved 18 October 2012.
  129. ^ a b "World Airline Survey... Aeroflot". Flight International: 492. 2 April 1964. Archived from the original on 6 November 2012. Retrieved 18 October 2012.
  130. ^ "JAL Expands". Flight International: 81. 18 January 1968. Archived from the original on 6 November 2012. Retrieved 18 October 2012. JAL hope to operate their own jet aircraft on the Tokyo-Moscow service, which is at present operated with Aeroflot aircraft (Tu-114) and flight crews.
  131. ^ "Air Commerce... Tu-114 MoscowHavana". Flight International: 134. 24 January 1963. Archived from the original on 6 November 2012. Retrieved 18 October 2012. Aerofiot are now operating regular services, claimed to be the longest nonstop in the world, between Havana and Moscow, a distance of 6,800 miles.
  132. ^ John Pike. "Ilyushin Il-62 Classic". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 12 July 2011.
  133. ^ "Air Transport". Flight International: 1693. 26 June 1976. Archived from the original on 23 May 2013. Retrieved 20 October 2012. The Tupolev Tu-144 SST is now in passenger service on Moscow-Alma Ata, according to Soviet press reports. The Tu-144 went into service as a cargo aircraft at the end of last year.
  134. ^ "Tu-144 enters passenger service". Flight International: 1407. 12 November 1977. Archived from the original on 23 May 2013. Retrieved 20 October 2012.
  135. ^ Duffy, Paul (18 December 1996). "Supersonic resurrection". Moscow: Flightglobal. Flight International. Archived from the original on 23 May 2013. Retrieved 20 October 2012.
  136. ^ a b "History". Flight International. Flightglobal. 18 December 1996. Archived from the original on 23 May 2013. Retrieved 20 October 2012.
  137. ^ "Tu-144 flies again". Flight International. 21 July 1979. Archived from the original on 23 May 2013. Retrieved 20 October 2012.
  138. ^ "New Tu-144 engines reported". Flight International. 4 August 1979. Archived from the original on 23 May 2013. Retrieved 20 October 2012.
  139. ^
  140. ^ "World news". Flight International: 206. 24 January 1981. Archived from the original on 23 May 2013. Russia's llyushin Il-86 widebody has entered scheduled service with Aeroflot. Shown here is an Il-86 after a two-hour route-proving flight between Moscow and Mineralnye Vody. First scheduled route for the type is between Moscow's Vnukovo Airport and Tashkent, operated three times a week.
  141. ^ a b "Ilyushin". Flightglobal. Flight International. 4 December 1996. Archived from the original on 23 May 2013.
  142. ^ Borodina, Polina (12 February 2014). "Aeroflot takes delivery of first sharklet-equipped A320". Air Transport World. Archived from the original on 7 March 2014. Aeroflot became the first Airbus operator in Russia; it began flying A310s in 1992. 
  143. ^
  144. ^ "ARIA Il-96 order in the balance". Flightglobal. Flight International. 21 June 1995. Archived from the original on 23 May 2013.
  145. ^ "Exim approves Aeroflot financing". Flightglobal. Flight International. 7 February 1996. Archived from the original on 23 May 2013.
  146. ^ "Aeroflot Orders Ten Boeing 737-400 Twinjets" (Press release). Boeing. 30 April 1997. Archived from the original on 2 June 2013. Retrieved 16 February 2013.
  147. ^ "USA/Russia argue over Il-96 Exim Bank deal". Flightglobal. Flight International. 4 August 1999. Archived from the original on 23 May 2013.
  148. ^ "Customs waiver clears Aeroflot 767-300ER lease deal". Flightglobal. Flight International. 18 January 2000. Archived from the original on 21 December 2014. 
  149. ^ "Milestone Boeing 767-300ER Delivered to Aeroflot Russian International Airlines" (Press release). Boeing. 1 October 1999. Archived from the original on 2 June 2013. Retrieved 9 February 2013.
  150. ^ "Aeroflot Takes to the Skies with Russia's First Boeing 777" (Press release). Boeing. 23 January 1998.
  151. ^ "Aeroflot to buy 22 Boeing planes, 22 from Airbus". Hearst Communications Inc. The Associated Press. 20 September 2006. Archived from the original on 18 October 2012.
  152. ^ "Aeroflot reserves 22 Boeing jets". The New York Times. International Herald Tribune. 19 September 2006. Archived from the original on 4 September 2012.
  153. ^ Nicholson, Alex (9 June 2007). "Boeing, Aeroflot sign 'Dreamliner' deal". USA Today. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 19 March 2009.
  154. ^ Straus, Brian (23 March 2007). "Aeroflot modernizing with A350 XWB commitment, e-ticketing". Air Transport World. Archived from the original on 7 April 2013.
  155. ^ "Price of Aeroflot Airbus Purchase Revealed as $3.1Bln". The Moscow Times. 4 October 2013. Archived from the original on 20 March 2014.
  156. ^ Borodina, Polina (24 October 2013). "Aeroflot to delay A350 XWB deliveries". Air Transport World. Archived from the original on 29 October 2013.
  157. ^ Kaminski-Morrow, David (9 June 2007). "Russia's Aeroflot signs for 22 Boeing 787s". Flightglobal. Archived from the original on 23 May 2013.
  158. ^ Straus, Brian (12 June 2007). "Aeroflot 787 order part of deepening Boeing-Russia ties". Air Transport World. Archived from the original on 24 March 2011.
  159. ^ "Boeing, Aeroflot Finalize Order for 22 787 Dreamliners" (Press release). Boeing. 5 September 2007. Archived from the original on 23 May 2013. Retrieved 2 February 2013.
  160. ^ Kaminski-Morrow, David (10 December 2008). "PICTURE: Aeroflot tests first A330 on local route ahead of Asia entry". Flightglobal. Air Transport Intelligence news. Archived from the original on 25 October 2012.
  161. ^ a b Clark, Oliver (16 June 2015). "PARIS: Aeroflot cancels 787 order". Paris: Flightglobal. Archived from the original on 17 June 2015. 
  162. ^ "Finnair sells two Boeing MD-11 aircraft" (Press release). Finnair. 15 May 2007. Archived from the original on 6 February 2012.
  163. ^ "Other News 01/03/2008". Air Transport World. 4 January 2008. Archived from the original on 6 June 2012.
  164. ^ Kaminski-Morrow, David (4 January 2008). "Aeroflot ends mainline Tu-134 operations after 40 years". London: Flightglobal.com. Air Transport Intelligence news. Archived from the original on 6 April 2015.
  165. ^ "Other News 01/14/2010". Air Transport World. 15 January 2010. Archived from the original on 6 June 2012. Retrieved 13 July 2012. Aeroflot announced the retirement of its last Tu-154. The aircraft flew for the final time on 31 December from Yekaterinburg to Moscow Sheremetyevo, according to RIA Novosti, and will be replaced with an A320.
  166. ^ "Aeroflot suspends Seattle-Moscow direct flights". American City Business Journals. 28 September 2005.
  167. ^ "All SSJ100 in Light Specification to be Replaced by Full in the First Half of 2014" (Press release). Superjet International. 30 January 2014.
  168. ^ "All Light SSJ100 of Aeroflot Replaced with the Full Version" (Press release). Superjet International. 30 June 2014.
  169. ^ a b Bonnassies, Olivier (28 May 2015). "Aeroflot board approves last 777 sale-and-leasebacks". London: Flightglobal. Archived from the original on 5 June 2015. 
  170. ^ Kaminski-Morrow, David (22 July 2010). "FARNBOROUGH: Aeroflot firms A330-300 order". Farnborough: Flightglobal. Archived from the original on 23 May 2013.
  171. ^ a b Zaitsev, Tom (1 September 2010). "Aeroflot plans up to 50 MS-21s as part of effort to support Russia's airliner industry". Moscow: Flightglobal. Flight International. Archived from the original on 23 May 2013.
  172. ^ Kaminski-Morrow, David (10 July 2010). "Putin pressures Aeroflot to take Russian-built aircraft". London: Flightglobal. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014.
  173. ^ Thomas, Geoffrey (22 June 2011). "Boeing orders keep coming in Paris". Air Transport World. Archived from the original on 20 September 2012.
  174. ^ Zaitsev, Tom (6 June 2011). "Aeroflot takes delivery of first Superjet 100". Moscow: Flightglobal. Archived from the original on 29 October 2013.
  175. ^ Borodina, Polina (31 January 2013). "Missing certificate causes Aeroflot to postpone Boeing 777 operations". Air Transport World. Archived from the original on 3 February 2013.
  176. ^ "Aeroflot Boeing 777-300ER Grounded by Missing Certificate". Moscow: RIA Novosti. 31 January 2013. Archived from the original on 3 February 2013.
  177. ^ Hofmann, Kurt (5 February 2013). "Aeroflot receives certificate to operate Boeing 777". Air Transport World. Archived from the original on 12 February 2013. Aeroflot chief Vitaly Saveliev disclosed towards the end of last year that the livery for the A320 had been selected following a vote.
  178. ^ "Aeroflot Acquires more Superjets". Airliner World: 10. March 2015.
  179. ^ "Aeroflot to take on 747s after Transaero collapse". flightglobal. 27 October 2015.
  180. ^ "More Superjets for Aeroflot". Airliner World (October 2016): 8.
  181. ^ Montag-Girmes, Polina (12 September 2016). "Aeroflot transfers 787 deal to Avia Capital Services". Air Transport World. Archived from the original on 15 September 2016.
  182. ^ "Aeroflot ultimately abandons Boeing 787 purchase plans". rusaviainsider. 26 November 2016.
  183. ^ Montag-Girmes, Polina (18 July 2017). "Aeroflot firms order for 20 SSJ100s". Air Transport World. Archived from the original on 19 July 2017.
  184. ^ McIntosh, Andrew (14 September 2017). "Russian airline orders Boeing 777s, giving Everett's widebody factory a boost". American City Business Journals.
  185. ^ "Aeroflot board approves plans to purchase six new 777-300ER aircraft". centreforaviation.com. Retrieved 1 September 2017.
  186. ^ """ Boeing 777". ato.ru. Retrieved 1 September 2017.
  187. ^ Pruchnicka, Anna (10 September 2018). "Russia's Aeroflot orders 100 Sukhoi Superjets". Reuters.
  188. ^ ES (4 October 2019). "Aeroflot starts phasing out its Airbus A330s". Russian Aviation Insider. Retrieved 9 October 2019.
  189. ^ Aeroflot Bonus levels Aeroflot Bonus web-site
  190. ^ "Comfort Plus service". Aeroflot. Archived from the original on 13 July 2011. Retrieved 12 July 2011.
  191. ^
  192. ^ Weir, Keith (8 July 2013). "Manchester United makes Aeroflot its first Russian sponsor". Reuters. Manchester. Archived from the original on 9 July 2013.


External links

This article based on this article: Aeroflot_Russian_Airlinesexternal Link from the free encyclopedia Wikipediaexternal Link and work with the GNU Free Documentation License. In Wikipedia is this list of the authorsexternal Link.