April 15, 1926 (earliest predecessor airline as American Airways, Inc.)|
Chicago, Illinois, United States
|Commenced operations||June 25, 1936|
|Fleet size||951 (mainline)|
|Parent company||American Airlines Group|
|Traded as||NASDAQ: AAL|
|Headquarters||CentrePort, Fort Worth, Texas, United States|
|Operating income||See parent|
|Net income||See parent|
|Total assets||See parent|
|Total equity||See parent|
|Employees||122,300 (May 2017)|
American Airlines, Inc. (AA) is a major United States airline headquartered in Fort Worth, Texas, within the Dallas-Fort Worth metroplex. It is the world's largest airline when measured by fleet size, revenue, scheduled passengers carried, scheduled passenger-kilometers flown, and number of destinations served. American, together with its regional partners, operates an extensive international and domestic network with an average of nearly 6,700 flights per day to nearly 350 destinations in more than 50 countries.
American Airlines is a founding member of Oneworld alliance, the third largest airline alliance in the world, and coordinates fares, services, and scheduling with alliance partners British Airways, Iberia, and Finnair in the transatlantic market and with Cathay Pacific and Japan Airlines in the transpacific market. Regional service is operated by independent and subsidiary carriers under the brand name American Eagle.
American operates out of ten hubs located in Dallas/Fort Worth, Charlotte, ChicagoO'Hare, Philadelphia, Miami, PhoenixSky Harbor, WashingtonNational, Los Angeles, New YorkJFK, and New YorkLaGuardia. American operates its primary maintenance base at Tulsa International Airport in addition to the maintenance locations located at its hubs. Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport is American Airlines largest passenger carrying hub, handling 51.1 million passengers annually with an average of 140,000 passengers daily. As of 2017, the company employs over 122,000 people. Through the airline's parent company, American Airlines Group, it is publicly traded under NASDAQ: AAL with a market capitalization of about $25 billion as of 2017, and included in the S&P 500 index.
American Airlines was started in 1930 via a union of more than eighty small airlines.
The two organizations from which American Airlines was originated were Robertson Aircraft Corporation and Colonial Air Transport. The former was first created in Missouri in 1921, with both being merged in 1929 into holding company The Aviation Corporation. This in turn, was made in 1930 into an operating company and rebranded as American Airways. In 1934, when new laws and attrition of mail contracts forced many airlines to reorganize, the corporation redid its routes into a connected system, and was renamed American Airlines. Between 1970 and 2000, the company grew into being an international carrier, purchasing Trans World Airlines in 2001.
In 2011, due to a downturn in the airline industry, American Airlines' parent company AMR Corporation filed for bankruptcy protection. In 2013, American Airlines merged with US Airways but kept the American Airlines name, as it was the better recognized brand internationally; the combination of the two airlines resulted in the creation of the largest airline in the United States, and ultimately the world.
American currently operates ten hubs.
As of October 2018, American Airlines flies to 95 domestic destinations and 95 international destinations in 55 countries in five continents.
|9||New York CityLaGuardia||173||38|
|10||New York CityJFK||103||44|
As of July 2018, American Airlines operates a fleet of 956 aircraft,[better source needed] making it the largest commercial fleet in the world. It primarily operates a mix of Airbus and Boeing planes, with an assortment of Embraer and McDonnell Douglas aircraft.
Over two thirds of American's aircraft are narrow-bodies, mainly Airbus A320 series and Boeing 737-800s. It also operates Boeing 757s, Embraer 190s, and McDonnell Douglas MD-82/83s, but most of them are planned to be retired by 2019 and 2020 as they will be replaced by the Boeing 737 MAX 8 and the Airbus A321neo aircraft.
Its wide-body aircraft are mainly Boeing airliners. It is the third-largest operator of the Boeing 767 series and the fifth-largest operator of the Boeing 777 series. It also operates the Airbus A330.
On July 20, 2011, American announced an order for 460 narrowbody jets including 260 Airbus A320s. The order broke Boeing's monopoly with the airline and forced Boeing into the re-engined 737 MAX. As this sale included a Most-Favoured-Customer Clause, the European airframer has to refund any difference to American if it sells to another airline at a lower price, so Airbus can't give a competitive price to competitor United Airlines, leaving it to a Boeing-skewed fleet.
Flagship First is American's international first class product. It is exclusively offered on all Boeing 777-300ERs in the fleet.
Boeing 777-300ER: Fully lie-flat seats with direct aisle access in a 1-2-1 reverse herringbone configuration. Seat length: 82 inches (208 cm). Equipped with a 17-inch (43 cm) touchscreen monitor and touchscreen handset, two universal AC power outlets, and USB ports.
Flagship Business is offered on some Boeing 757-200s and all Airbus A330-200s, Airbus A330-300s, Boeing 767-300ERs, Boeing 777-200ERs, Boeing 777-300ERs, Boeing 787-8s, and Boeing 787-9s.
Airbus A330: Fully lie-flat Cirrus seats manufactured by Zodiac Seats France and designed by JPA Design for US Airways with direct aisle access in a 1-2-1 reverse herringbone configuration. Seat length: 76-80 inches (193203 cm). Equipped with a 12.1 inch (31 cm) touchscreen monitor, one universal AC power outlet, and USB ports.
Boeing 757-200 International: Fully lie-flat Diamond seats manufactured by B/E Aerospace and designed for American Airlines in a 2-2 configuration. Seat length: 7578 inches (191198 cm). Equipped with Samsung Galaxy Tab 10.1 inch (26 cm) tablets, and two universal AC power outlets (one to power the tablet).
Boeing 767-300ER: Fully lie-flat seats manufactured by Thompson Aero Seating with direct aisle access in a 1-2-1 staggered configuration. Equipped with Samsung Galaxy Tab 10.1 inch (26 cm) tablets, two universal AC power outlets (one to power the tablet), and USB ports.
Boeing 777-200ER Version 1: Fully lie-flat seats manufactured by Zodiac Seats France, designed for American Airlines, with direct aisle access in a 1-2-1 reverse herringbone configuration with front-facing and rear-facing seats. Seat length: 77 inches (196 cm). Equipped with a 16-inch (41 cm) touchscreen monitor and touchscreen handset, two universal AC power outlets, and USB ports.
Boeing 777-200ER Version 2: Fully lie-flat Super Diamond seats manufactured by B/E Aerospace and designed for American Airlines with direct aisle access in a 1-2-1 reverse herringbone configuration. Seat length: 77 inches (196 cm). Equipped with a touchscreen monitor and touchscreen handset, one universal AC power outlet, and USB ports.
Boeing 777-300ER: Fully lie-flat Cirrus seats manufactured by Zodiac Seats UK, designed by JPA Design for Cathay Pacific, and licensed from Cathay Pacific with direct aisle access in a 1-2-1 reverse herringbone configuration. Seat length: 76-80 inches (193203 cm). Equipped with a 15.4-inch(39 cm) inch touchscreen monitor, one universal AC power outlet, and USB ports.
Boeing 787-8: Fully lie-flat seats manufactured by Zodiac Seats France and designed for American Airlines with direct aisle access in a 1-2-1 reverse herringbone configuration with front-facing and rear-facing seats. Seat length: 77 inches (196 cm). Equipped with a 16-inch (41 cm) touchscreen monitor and touchscreen handset, two universal AC power outlets, and USB ports.
Boeing 787-9: Fully lie-flat Super Diamond seats manufactured by B/E Aerospace and designed for American Airlines with direct aisle access in a 1-2-1 reverse herringbone configuration. Seat length: 77 inches (196 cm). Equipped with a touchscreen monitor and touchscreen handset, one universal AC power outlet, and USB ports.
American has dedicated 17 Airbus A321s (A321T) in its fleet for the specific use of flying transcontinental routes between New York JFK Los Angeles and New York JFK San Francisco. These aircraft offer two premium cabins, Flagship First and Flagship Business, which are unique among domestic mainline aircraft in American's fleet:
Flagship First: Fully lie-flat seats manufactured by Zodiac Seats France and designed for American Airlines with direct aisle access in a 1-1 reverse herringbone configuration. Equipped with a 15.4-inch (39 cm) inch touchscreen monitor and touchscreen handset, one universal AC power outlet, and USB ports.
Flagship Business: Fully lie-flat Diamond seats manufactured by B/E Aerospace and designed for American Airlines in a 2-2 configuration. Seat length: 7578 inches (191198 cm). Equipped with a 15.4-inch (39 cm) touchscreen monitor and touchscreen handset, one universal AC power outlet, and USB ports.
First Class is offered on all domestic mainline aircraft, as well as regional aircraft with more than 50 seats. When such aircraft are used on flights to international destinations including Canada, Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean, the First Class cabin is branded as Business Class. Seats range from 1921 inches (4853 cm) in width and have 3742 inches (94106 cm) of pitch. Dining options include free snacks, beverages, and alcohol on all flights, with three-course meals offered on flights 900 miles (1,448 km) or longer (select routes under 900 miles offer meal service).
On December 9, 2015, American announced a new Premium Economy product for most long-haul widebody aircraft. This new product debuted on the new 787-9s in late 2016 and will be retrofitted to all other widebody aircraft within the next three years, excluding 767s due to their upcoming retirement. The seats will be wider than standard Main Cabin seats and will offer 38" of pitch, 2" more than Main Cabin Extra seats, as well as a footrest. Premium Economy customers will also get two free checked bags, priority boarding, and enhanced food and drink service including free alcohol. This product will make American Airlines the first U.S. carrier to offer a four-cabin aircraft.
American's economy plus product (not to be confused with premium economy), Main Cabin Extra, is available on most of the mainline fleet and American Eagle regional aircraft with more than 50 seats. Exceptions include a majority of former US Airways aircraft (as of May 2014), US Airways Express regional aircraft, and a handful of 777-200ERs that have yet to be retrofitted. Seats range from 17.219.5 inches (4447 cm) in width and have 3438 inches (8697 cm) of pitch, which is 56 more inches of pitch offered in regular economy seating. American retained Main Cabin Extra when the new Premium Economy product entered service in late 2016.
Main Cabin is American's economy product, and is found on all mainline and regional aircraft in its fleet. Seats range from 1718.5 inches (4347 cm) in width and have 3032 inches (7681 cm) of pitch. Newer aircraft, including all Boeing 777-300ER, refurbished Boeing 777-200ER's, all Boeing 787 Dreamliners, all Airbus A330s, all newly delivered Airbus A319s and most newly delivered Airbus A321s, include seatback TVs, featuring AVOD in each seat. However, American Airlines have decided not to add seatback TVs for the 100 Boeing 737 MAX 8 aircraft that have been ordered
American's basic economy product, Basic Economy, is available on select routes. It is American's lowest main cabin fare. Basic economy is located in main cabin, but comes with restrictions. These restrictions include assigned seat at check in, no upgrades or refunds, and boarding in the last group.
American Airlines marketed increased legroom in economy class as "More Room Throughout Coach", also referred to as "MRTC" starting in February 2000. Two rows of economy class seats were removed on Boeing 737 and McDonnell Douglas MD-80 aircraft. Amid financial losses, this scheme was discontinued in 2004.
In May 2017, American announced they would be adding more seats to some of its Boeing 737 MAX jetliners and reducing overall legroom in the basic economy class. The last three rows will lose two inches; going from the current 31 to 29 inches. The remainder of the economy cabin will have 30 inches of legroom. This compares to JetBlue with 34 inches of legroom and Spirit with 28 inches.
AAdvantage is the frequent flyer program for American Airlines. It was launched on May 1, 1981, and it remains the largest frequent flyer program with over 67 million members as of 2011. Miles accumulated in the program allow members to redeem tickets, upgrade service class, or obtain free or discounted car rentals, hotel stays, merchandise, or other products and services through partners. The most active members, based on the amount and price of travel booked, are designated AAdvantage Gold, AAdvantage Platinum, AAdvantage Platinum Pro, and AAdvantage Executive Platinum elite members, with privileges such as separate check-in, priority upgrade and standby processing, or free upgrades. They also receive similar privileges from AA's partner airlines, particularly those in oneworld.
AAdvantage co-branded credit cards are also available and offer other benefits. The cards are issued by CitiCards, subsidiary of Citigroup in the United States, by MBNA in the United Kingdom and by Butterfield Bank and Scotiabank in the Caribbean.
AAdvantage allows one-way redemption, starting at 5,000 miles.
The Admirals Club was conceived by AA president C.R. Smith as a marketing promotion shortly after he was made an honorary Texas Ranger. Inspired by the Kentucky colonels and other honorary title designations, Smith decided to make particularly valued passengers "admirals" of the "Flagship fleet" (AA called its aircraft "Flagships" at the time). The list of Admirals included many celebrities, politicians, and other VIPs, as well as more "ordinary" customers who had been particularly loyal to the airline.
There was no physical Admirals Club until shortly after the opening of LaGuardia Airport. During the airport's construction, New York Mayor Fiorello LaGuardia had an upper-level lounge set aside for press conferences and business meetings. At one such press conference, he noted that the entire terminal was being offered for lease to airline tenants; after a reporter asked whether the lounge would be leased as well, LaGuardia replied that it would, and a vice president of AA immediately offered to lease the premises. The airline then procured a liquor license and began operating the lounge as the "Admirals Club" in 1939.
The second Admirals Club opened at Washington National Airport. Because it was illegal to sell alcohol in Virginia at the time, the club contained refrigerators for the use of its members, so they could store their own liquor at the airport. For many years, membership in the Admirals Club (and most other airline lounges) was by the airline's invitation. After a passenger sued for discrimination, the Club (and most other airline lounges) switched to a paid membership program.
Though affiliated with the Admirals Club and staffed by many of the same employees, the Flagship Lounge is a separate lounge specifically designed for customers flying in First Class and Business Class on international flights and transcontinental domestic flights, as well as AAdvantage Executive Platinum, Platinum Pro, and Platinum, as well as Oneworld Emerald and Sapphire frequent flyers. As of January 2018, Flagship Lounges are located at four airports: Chicago-O'Hare, Miami International, Los Angeles and New York-JFK.
American Airlines is headquartered in Fort Worth, Texas, adjacent to the Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport. The headquarters is located in two office buildings in the CentrePort office complex and these buildings together have about 1,400,000 square feet (130,000 m2) of space. As of 2014[update] over 4,300 employees work at this complex.
Before it was headquartered in Texas, American Airlines was headquartered at 633 Third Avenue in the Murray Hill area of Midtown Manhattan, New York City. In 1979, American moved its headquarters to a site at Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, which affected up to 1,300 jobs. Mayor of New York City Ed Koch described the move as a "betrayal" of New York City. American moved to two leased office buildings in Grand Prairie, Texas. On January 17, 1983, the airline finished moving into a $150 million ($369,000,000 when adjusted for inflation), 550,000-square-foot (51,000 m2) facility in Fort Worth; $147 million (about $361,000,000 when adjusted for inflation) in Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport bonds financed the headquarters. The airline began leasing the facility from the airport, which owns the facility.
As of 2015, American Airlines is the corporation with the largest presence in Fort Worth.
In 2015, the airline announced it will build a new headquarters in Fort Worth. Groundbreaking began in the spring of 2016 and occupancy is scheduled for summer 2019. The airline plans to house 5,000 new workers in the building.
It will be located on a 41-acre (17 ha) property adjacent to the airline's flight academy and conference and training center, west of Texas State Highway 360, 2 miles (3.2 km) west from the current headquarters. The airline will lease a total of 300 acres (120 ha) from Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport and this area will include the headquarters. Construction of the new headquarters began after the demolition of the Sabre facility previously on the site.
The airline considered developing a new headquarters in Irving, on the Texas Stadium site, before deciding to keep the headquarters in Fort Worth.
In 1931, Goodrich Murphy, an American employee, designed the AA logo. The logo was redesigned by Massimo Vignelli in 1967. Thirty years later, in 1997, American Airlines was able to make its logo Internet-compatible by buying the domain AA.com. AA is also American's two-letter IATA airline designator.
On January 17, 2013, American launched a new rebranding and marketing campaign with FutureBrand dubbed, "A New American". This included a new logo replacing the logo used since 1967. American Airlines calls the new logo the "Flight Symbol, incorporating the eagle, star, and the letter A of the classic logo.
On June 3, 2016, American Airlines sought to register their 2013 logo with the United States Copyright Office. However, in October of that year, the Copyright Office ruled that the logo was ineligible for copyright protection, as it did not pass the threshold of originality. American submitted multiple requests for the Copyright Office to reconsider their determination. However, on January 8, 2018, the Copyright Office made a final decision that affirmed its initial determination that American's new logo was ineligible for copyright protection and is thus in the public domain.
American's early liveries varied widely, but a common livery was adopted in the 1930s, featuring an eagle painted on the fuselage. The eagle became a symbol of the company and inspired the name of American Eagle Airlines. Propeller aircraft featured an international orange lightning bolt running down the length of the fuselage, which was replaced by a simpler orange stripe with the introduction of jets.
In the late 1960s, American commissioned designer Massimo Vignelli to develop a new livery. The original design called for a red, white, and blue stripe on the fuselage, and a simple "AA" logo, without an eagle, on the tail; instead, Vignelli created a highly stylized eagle, which remained the company's logo until 2013. In 1999, American painted a new Boeing 757 (N679AN) in its 1959 international orange livery. One Boeing 777 and one Boeing 757 were painted in standard livery with a pink ribbon on the sides and on the tail, in support of Susan G. Komen for the Cure. One Boeing 757 is painted with a yellow ribbon on the tailfin on the aircraft and on the side of the body says "Flagship Freedom". American Eagle, the airline's regional airline has the same special livery on ERJ-145 aircraft.
On January 17, 2013, American unveiled a new livery. Before then, American had been the only major U.S. airline to leave most of its aircraft surfaces unpainted. This was because C. R. Smith hated painted aircraft, and refused to use any liveries that involved painting the entire plane. Robert "Bob" Crandall later justified the distinctive natural metal finish by noting that less paint reduced the aircraft's weight, thus saving on fuel costs.
In January 2013, American launched a new rebranding and marketing campaign dubbed, "The New American". In addition to a new logo, American Airlines introduced a new livery for its fleet. The airline calls the new livery and branding "a clean and modern update". The current design features an abstract American flag on the tail, along with a silver-painted fuselage, as a throw-back to the old livery. The new design was painted by Leading Edge Aviation Services in California. Doug Parker, the incoming CEO indicated that the new livery could be short-lived, stating that "maybe we need to do something slightly different than that ... The only reason this is an issue now is because they just did it right in the middle, which kind of makes it confusing, so that gives us an opportunity, actually, to decide if we are going to do something different because we have so many airplanes to paint".
In the end, American let its employees decide the new livery's fate. On an internal website for employees, American posted two options, one the new livery and one a modified version of the old livery. All of the American Airlines Group employees (including US Airways and other affiliates) were able to vote. American ultimately decided to keep the new look. Parker announced that American would keep a US Airways heritage aircraft in the fleet, with plans to add a heritage TWA aircraft and a heritage American plane with the old livery.
Violations occurring over a 4½ year periodfrom October 1993 to July 1998targeted American Airlines for using high-sulfur fuel in motor vehicles at 10 major airports around the country. Under the federal Clean Air Act high sulfur fuel cannot be used in motor vehicles. American Airlines promptly identified and corrected these violations of the Clean Air Act.
American Airlines' wastewater treatment plant recycles water used at the base to wash aircraft, process rinse water tanks, and irrigate landscape. That alone has saved almost $1 million since 2002. In addition to that, American Airlines has also won the award for the reduction of hazardous waste that saved them $229,000 after a $2,000 investment. A bar code system is used to track hazardous waste. It has led to reduction of waste by 50 percent since 2000.
As of January 2018, the airline has had almost sixty aircraft hull losses due to all causes since the crash of an American Airways Ford 5-AT-C Trimotor in August 1931. Of these most were propeller driven aircraft, including three Lockheed L-188 Electra turboprop aircraft (of which one, the crash in 1959 of Flight 320, resulted in fatalities). Seventeen jet aircraft have been written off due to crashes including Flight 587 in 2001, Flight 965 in 1995, Flight 191 in 1979, Flight 1 in 1962 and two aircraft destroyed in the September 11 attacks and other accidents (such as the Flight 383 engine failure and fire in 2016); two of these were training flights in which only the crew were killed and six resulted in no fatalities. Another four jet aircraft have been written off due to incidents while they were parked between flights or while undergoing maintenance.
Certificate Number AALA025A
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