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Beechcraft 1900

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Beechcraft 1900
A Continental Connection Beechcraft 1900D
Role Regional airliner, cargo, and corporate aircraft
Manufacturer Beech Aircraft Corporation
Raytheon Aircraft Company[1]
First flight September 3, 1982[2]
Introduction February 1984
Status In service
Primary users Silver Airways
Great Lakes Airlines
Ameriflight
Produced 1982-2002
Number built 695
Unit cost
US$ 4.995 million (2001)[2]
Developed from Beechcraft Super King Air

The Beechcraft 1900 is a 19-passenger, pressurized twin-engine turboprop fixed-wing aircraft that was manufactured by Beechcraft. It was designed, and is primarily used, as a regional airliner. It is also used as a freight aircraft and corporate transport, and by several governmental and military organisations. With customers favoring larger regional jets, Raytheon ended production in October 2002.

The aircraft was designed to carry passengers in all weather conditions from airports with relatively short runways. It is capable of flying in excess of 600 miles (970 km), although few operators use its full-fuel range. In terms of the number of aircraft built and its continued use by many passenger airlines and other users, it is one of the most popular 19-passenger airliners in history.[3]

Development

The 1900 is Beechcraft's third regional airliner. The Beechcraft Model 18 was a 6- to 11-passenger utility aircraft produced from 1937 to 1970, used by the military, airlines, charter operations, corporations for executive transport, and freight carriers. The 15-passenger Beechcraft Model 99 Airliner was designed to replace the Beech 18, and was produced between 1966 and 1975, and from 1982 to 1986. It was also commercially successful and remains in common use with freight airlines such as Ameriflight.

The Beechcraft 1900's design lineage began in 1949 with the Beechcraft Model 50 Twin Bonanza, a 5-passenger, reciprocating engine utility aircraft designed for the U.S. Army. A larger passenger cabin was added to the Twin Bonanza's airframe, and called the Model 65 Queen Air. This aircraft was, in turn, further modified by adding turboprop engines and cabin pressurization, and named the Model 90 King Air. A stretched version of the King Air was later developed and designated the Model 200 Super King Air. Beechcraft developed the Beechcraft 1900 directly from the Beechcraft Super King Air, in order to provide a pressurized commuterliner to compete with the Swearingen Metro and the British Aerospace Jetstream.[4]

The 1900 first flew on September 3, 1982, with Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) certification awarded on November 22, 1983 under Special Federal Aviation Regulation (SFAR) 41C airworthiness standards.[4] Like the 1900, the 1900C was certified under SFAR 41C, but the later 1900D version was certified to FAR Part 23 "Commuter Category" standards.[5]

The 1900 entered service in February 1984,[4] with the first ExecLiner corporate version delivered in 1985. A total of 695 Beechcraft 1900 aircraft were built, making the airliner the best-selling 19-passenger airliner in history.[3][6] With market trends favoring larger 50- to 90-seat regional jets, Raytheon ended production of the Beechcraft 1900 in October 2002.[citation needed] Many airlines continue to fly the 1900.

Design

Since the 1900 is derived from the King Air, all 1900s share certain characteristics with that aircraft. Cockpit controls and operations are similar to those of the King Air. While Federal Aviation Regulations require two pilots for passenger airline operations, the 1900 is designed and certificated for single-pilot operation in corporate or cargo settings, as is the King Air.

Propulsion

The 1900 is powered by two Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A turboprop engines. The 1900 and 1900C use two PT6A-65B engines, each flat rated at 1,100 shaft horsepower (820 kW). The 1900D uses two PT6A-67D engines, each rated at 1,279 shaft horsepower (954 kW).

The propellers are manufactured by Hartzell, with four blades on each propeller. The blades are made from composite materials.

Performance

The 1900D cruises at about 285 knots (328 mph or 528 km/h) true airspeed. Ordinary trip lengths range from 100 to 600 miles (20 minutes to two hours), but with full fuel tanks, the aircraft is capable of flying well in excess of 1,000 nautical miles (1,900 km).[7]

The Beechcraft 1900 can operate safely on relatively short airstrips and it can take off and land on grass and rough runways.

The airplane is certified to fly up to an altitude of 25,000 feet (7,600 m) above mean sea level with its pressurized cabin.[7] It is designed to operate in most weather conditions, including icing conditions, and it is usually equipped with weather radar to help pilots avoid severe weather.[7] The aircraft can be fitted with an optional lavatory, using space otherwise available for passenger seating and cargo storage.[7]

Variants

1900

The original design is known simply as the Beechcraft 1900. It features two airstair passenger boarding doors: one near the tail of the aircraft much like the smaller King Airs, and a second at the front just behind the cockpit. It has a small cargo door near the tail for access to the baggage compartment, which is behind the passenger compartment. Only three airframes were built, with "UA" serial numbers of UA-1, UA-2, and UA-3. UA-1 and UA-2 are stored at a Beechcraft facility in Wichita, Kansas. UA-3, registered FAB-043, served in Bolivia until it crashed in November 2011.[8]

1900C

It quickly became clear that having two airstair doors on an aircraft holding only 19 passengers was excessive. In creating the 1900C, Beechcraft kept the front airstair, but eliminated the aft airstair door, installing an enlarged cargo door in its place. Other than the redesigned door layout, the early 1900Cs were substantially similar to the original 1900s. These were assigned serial numbers starting with the letters UB. A total of 74 UB version were built, many of which remain in service.[5] Aircraft in the UA and UB series employ a bladder-type fuel tank system in the wings. Later 1900Cs use a wet wing fuel system: entire sections of the wing are sealed off for use as fuel tanks. This design change allowed more fuel to be stored, substantially increasing the 1900C's range. The wet wing 1900Cs were assigned serial numbers beginning with "UC." These aircraft are also referred to as 1900C-1s. The wet wings proved popular, and the UC is the most common version of the low-ceiling 1900, with 174 UC airframes built.[5]

Raytheon manufactured six 1900C aircraft for use by the U.S. military. These were assigned "UD" serial numbers, UD-1 through UD-6.

1900D

While the 1900C had become a popular regional airliner, Beechcraft undertook a substantial redesign of the aircraft, and in 1991 introduced a new version called the 1900D.

The 1900 and 1900C, like most 19-passenger airliners and small business jets, have fairly small passenger cabins, with ceilings so low that passengers cannot walk through the interior without bending forward. The 1900D was designed to remedy this by providing a "stand-up cabin", which would allow most passengers to walk upright. It is one of only two 19-seat airliners with this feature, the other being the British Aerospace Jetstream 31/32.[5]

Because the taller passenger cabin adds both weight and drag to the airplane, other elements of the 1900D were also changed. More powerful engines and modified propellers were installed, winglets were added to reduce drag and increase the wings' efficiency, and the tail was made larger in response to the more powerful engines. The cockpit was updated with an Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS). The 1900D was certified under the then-new FAR Part 23 "Commuter Category" standards, which had replaced the earlier SFAR 41C. Since the UD serial numbers were already in use by the military 1900s, the 1900D airplanes have serial numbers beginning with UE. The 1900D is the most popular version of the airliner, with 439 of the 1900D built.[5]

Military C-12J

The U.S. military designation for the Beechcraft 1900C is C-12J. This is a variant of the C-12 Huron, which is the most common designation for military King Airs. The C-12J includes the 6 UD series Beechcraft 1900s built for the U.S. military, as well as other 1900Cs in U.S. military service.

Examples of C-12J aircraft in military service include one used for GPS jamming tests at the 586th Flight Test Squadron, Holloman Air Force Base, New Mexico,[9] and three based at the 459th Airlift Squadron, Yokota Air Base, Japan.[3] The U.S. Army operates both C-12J and 1900D aircraft along with other C-12 (King Air) aircraft.[10]

King Air ExecLiner

The King Air ExecLiner was a marketing name for a corporate version of the Beechcraft 1900C.

Operators

Civilian operators

In July 2016, a total of 120 1900Cs and 214 1900Ds were in airline service: 231 in Americas, 63 in Africa, 25 in Europe and 15 in Asia Pacific & Middle East. Airline operators with nine or more aircraft were:[11]

Military operators

Military and government operators include:[12]

Algeria
Australia
Bolivia
  • Ministry of National Defence
Colombia
Egypt
Myanmar
South Sudan
Taiwan
Thailand
United Arab Emirates
United States

Accidents and incidents

  • November 23, 1987: A Ryan Air Services 1900 crashed on approach to the airport at Homer, Alaska. Flight 103 was fully loaded (all 19 seats occupied; 1437 pounds of cargo) when it took off from Kodiak. The aircraft lifted off the runway, fell back and accelerated for about another 15 knots before it became airborne. The aircraft was approaching Homer when it was cleared for the localizer/DME approach to runway 3. The crew reported a 2-mile (3.2 km) final 5 minutes later. On short final the wings were seen to rock back and forth; the aircraft then dropped steeply to the ground in a rather flat attitude, struck the airport perimeter fence and slid to a stop on its belly. Probable cause - "the failure of the flight crew to properly supervise the loading of the airplane which resulted in the centre of gravity being displaced to such an aft location that the airplane control was lost when the flaps were lowered for landing."[19]
  • May 18, 1990: A Beechcraft 1900C, operating for Aerolift Philippines as flight 75 to Surigao, took off from runway 13 at Manila's international airport. During takeoff the no. 2 engine failed. The airplane began turning to the right as the crew radioed that they were returning to the airport. With the undercarriage down and the flaps still in takeoff position the airplane impacted a house in the suburban Paranaque neighbourhood. All 21 on board the aircraft and a family of four inside the house were killed.[20]
  • Aug 21, 1990: A Republic of China Air Force 1900C crashed in Yunlin County in central Taiwan, killing 18 officers on board.[21]
  • December 28, 1991: A Business Express Airlines 1900C crashed during a training flight when the instructor refused to take back the controls after the students became disoriented due to heavily stressing conditions imposed by the instructor, against the company's flight manual. This conclusion was controversial, as an investigation by the Airline Pilots Association showed that there were many indications of catastrophic airframe failure, not due to pilot error.[22][23][24]
  • December 7, 1995: An Air St. Martin 1900D drifted off course and crashed into a mountain in Haiti, killing all 21 people on board.[25]
  • November 19, 1996: A United Express 1900C collided on a runway with a Beechcraft King Air at Quincy Regional Airport in Illinois, killing all 14 people on board both aircraft.[26]
  • July 30, 1998: Proteus Airlines Flight 706, a 1900D, collided in midair with a Cessna 177RG over Quiberon Bay in France. None of the 14 passengers and crew survived.[27]
  • January 8, 2003: Air Midwest Flight 5481, a 1900D crashed into a hangar just after takeoff from Charlotte/Douglas International Airport in North Carolina, killing all 21 people on board.[28]
  • August 26, 2003: Colgan Air Flight 9446, a Beech 1900D operated for US Airways Express hit the water shortly after taking off from Hyannis, Massachusetts. Both pilots died.[29]
  • May 2, 2008: A South Sudan Air Connection 1900 leased from CEM Air crashed, killing 22 people including Southern Sudan's Minister of Defense.[30][31]
  • November 5, 2010: A 1900C flying for JS Air (Private) Limited, experienced engine failure and crashed a little after 0715 near Karachi killing 21 on board including 2 crew members.[32]
  • September 25, 2011: A 1900D flying for Buddha Air (Nepal) crashed during a return scenic flight from the Himalayas killing 19 on board including 3 crew.[33]
  • February 9, 2016: A Myanmar Air Force 1900D crashed shortly after taking off from Naypyidaw Airport killing 5 officers on board.[34]

Specifications (Beechcraft 1900D)

Data from Raytheon: Beechcraft 1900D Passenger Specifications and Performance[35]

General characteristics

Performance

Avionics

See also

Related development
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
Related lists

Notes

  1. ^ Type Certificate Data Sheet No. A24CE
  2. ^ a b Jackson 2003, pp. 535536.
  3. ^ a b c John Pike. "C-12J". globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 18 January 2015. 
  4. ^ a b c Francillon 2001, p. 57.
  5. ^ a b c d e "Raytheon Airline Aviation Services". Archived from the original on 17 October 2007. Retrieved 26 August 2011. 
  6. ^ The Fairchild Swearingen Metroliner series outsold the 1900 series, but many were built as corporate Merlins and purpose-built Expediter freighters. The 19-seat de Havilland Canada DHC-6 Twin Otter outsold both types, but it is typically used in different operations.
  7. ^ a b c d Beechcraft 1900D Aircraft Flight Manual, Raytheon Aircraft Corporation
  8. ^ Aeronave de la FAB aterriza de emergencia, retrieved 18 January 2015
  9. ^ "Holloman Air Force Base - Fact Sheet Media". af.mil. Archived from the original on 26 May 2011. Retrieved 18 January 2015. 
  10. ^ "UsArmyAviation.com - Fixed Wing Page 1". usarmyaviation.com. Retrieved 18 January 2015. 
  11. ^ "World Airliner Census". Flight Global. August 2016. 
  12. ^ "Airliners.net - Airplanes - Aviation - Aircraft- Aircraft Photos & News". airliners.net. Retrieved 18 January 2015. 
  13. ^ Hoyle Flight International 814 December 2015, p. 32.
  14. ^ Hoyle Flight International 814 December 2015, p. 37.
  15. ^ Hoyle Flight International 814 December 2015, p. 43.
  16. ^ Mazumdar, Mrityunjoy (16 December 2016). "Myanmar commissions transport aircraft, helos". IHS Jane's 360. Alameda, California. Retrieved 16 December 2016. 
  17. ^ Cutler, David (April 17, 2012). "Factbox: How Sudan and South Sudan shape up militarily". Reuters.com. Thomson Reuters. Retrieved 9 February 2014. 
  18. ^ a b Hoyle Flight International 814 December 2015, p. 49.
  19. ^ "ASN Aircraft accident Beechcraft 1900C N401RA Homer Airport, AK (HOM)". Aviation-safety.net. 1987-11-23. Retrieved 2012-03-29. 
  20. ^ [1] aviation-safety.net
  21. ^ Military Aviation Accidents, TaiwanAirPower.org
  22. ^ "Introduction to conflicting N811BE Accident Investigation Reports". Iprr.org. Retrieved 2012-03-29. 
  23. ^ "block island - safety hyushin - air safety - 1993 - 1706 - Flight Archive". flightglobal.com. Retrieved 18 January 2015. 
  24. ^ "ASN Aircraft accident Beechcraft 1900C N811BE Block Island, RI". Aviation-safety.net. Retrieved 2012-03-29. 
  25. ^ 1995 Air St. Martin Beech 1900 crash
  26. ^ NTSB Report: United Express Flight 5925
  27. ^ https://www.bea.aero/docspa/1998/f-je980730/htm/f-je980730.htm BEA Report: F-GSJM/F-GAJE
  28. ^ Air Midwest Flight 5481
  29. ^ "UPDATE ON NTSB INVESTIGATIONS INTO RECENT BEECH 1900D ACCIDENTS AND INCIDENTS." National Transportation Safety Board. November 21, 2003. Retrieved on February 13, 2009.
  30. ^ "BBC NEWS - Africa - Engine fault 'caused Sudan crash'". bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 18 January 2015. 
  31. ^ Correction: South Sudan declares three-day mourning for crash victims Sudan Tribune 3 May 2008
  32. ^ "No survivors in Karachi plane crash". TGeo TV Pakistan. Archived from the original on 28 July 2012. Retrieved 18 January 2015. 
  33. ^ 19 dead after tourist plane crashes in Nepal
  34. ^ Pyae Thet Phyo, Swan Ye Htut (10 February 2016). "Five killed in military plane crash in Nay Pyi Taw". The Myanmar Times. Retrieved 10 February 2016. 
  35. ^ Raytheon: Beechcraft 1900D Passenger Specifications and Performance Retrieved on 30 December 2010
  36. ^ (1,353 equivalent shaft horsepower, including thrust from jet exhaust), 3,950 foot-pounds Torque

References

  • Francillon, René J (January 2001). "1900 for 2000: The 'Son of Beech' - Raytheon 1900 Airliner". Air International. pp. 5658. ISSN 0306-5634. 
  • Hoyle, Craig (814 December 2015). "World Air Forces Directory". Flight International. Vol. 188 no. 5517. pp. 2653. ISSN 0015-3710. 
  • Jackson, Paul (2003). Jane's All the World's Aircraft 20032004. Coulsdon, UK: Jane's Information Group Limited. ISBN 0-7106-2537-5. 
  • Phillips, Edward H. Beechcraft  Pursuit of Perfection, A History of Beechcraft Airplanes. Flying Books, Eagan, Minnesota 1992.ISBN 0-911139-11-7

External links


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