Sydney (Kingsford Smith) Airport
|Owner||Leased Commonwealth Airport|
|Operator||Sydney Airport Corporation Limited|
|Location||Mascot, New South Wales, Australia|
|Elevation AMSL||21 ft / 6 m|
Passenger and aircraft movements from the Bureau of Infrastructure, Transport and Regional Economics
Sydney (Kingsford Smith) Airport (colloquially Mascot Airport, Kingsford Smith Airport, or Sydney Airport; IATA: SYD, ICAO: YSSY; ASX: SYD) is an international airport in Sydney, Australia located 8 km (5 mi) south of Sydney city centre, in the suburb of Mascot. The airport is owned by the ASX-listed Sydney Airport Group. It is the primary airport serving Sydney, and is a primary hub for Qantas, as well as a secondary hub for Virgin Australia and Jetstar Airways. Situated next to Botany Bay, the airport has three runways, colloquially known as the eastwest, northsouth and third runways.
Sydney Airport is one of the world's longest continuously operated commercial airports and the busiest airport in Australia, handling 42.6 million passengers and 348,904 aircraft movements in 201617. It was the 38th busiest airport in the world in 2016. Currently 46 domestic and 43 international destinations are served to Sydney directly.
The land used for the airport had been a bullock paddock. Nigel Love, who had been a pilot in the First World War, was interested in establishing the nation's first aircraft manufacturing company. This idea would require him to establish a factory and an aerodrome close to the city. A real estate office in Sydney told him of some land owned by the Kensington Race Club that was being kept as a hedge against its losing its government-owned site at Randwick. It had been used by a local abattoir which was closing down, to graze sheep and cattle. This land appealed to Love as the surface was perfectly flat and was covered with a pasture of buffalo grass. The grass had been grazed so evenly by the sheep and cattle that it required little to make it serviceable for aircraft. In addition, the approaches on all four sides had no obstructions, it was bounded by a racecourse, gardens, a river and Botany Bay.
Love established Mascot as a private concern, leasing 80 hectares (200 acres) from the Kensington Race Club for three years. It initially had a small canvas structure but was later equipped with an imported Richards hangar. The first flight from Mascot was on November 1919 when Love carried freelance movie photographer Billy Marshall up in an Avro. The official opening flight took place on 9 January 1920, also performed by Love.
In 1921, the Commonwealth Government purchased 65 hectares (161 acres) in Mascot for the purpose of creating a public airfield. In 1923, when Love's three-year lease expired, the Mascot land was compulsorily acquired by the Commonwealth Government from the racing club. The first regular flights began in 1924.
In 1933 the first gravel runways were built. By 1949 the airport had three runways the 1,085-metre (3,560 ft) 11/29, the 1,190-metre (3,904 ft) 16/34 and the 1,787-metre (5,863 ft) 04/22. The Sydenham to Botany railway line crossed the latter runway approximately 150 metres (490 ft) from the northern end and was protected by special safeworking facilities. The Cooks River was diverted away from the area in 194752 to provide more land for the airport and other small streams were filled. When Mascot was declared an aerodrome in 1920 it was known as Sydney Airport. On 14 August 1936 the airport was renamed Sydney (Kingsford Smith) Airport in honour of pioneering Australian aviator Sir Charles Kingsford Smith. Up to the early 1960s the majority of Sydney-siders referred to the airport as Mascot. The first paved runway was 07/25 and the next one constructed was 16/34 (now 16R/34L), extended into Botany Bay, starting in 1959, to accommodate jet aircraft. Runway 07/25 is used mainly by lighter aircraft, but is used by all aircraft including Airbus A380s when conditions require. Runway 16R is presently the longest operational runway in Australia, with a paved length of 4,400 m (14,300 ft) and 3,920 m (12,850 ft) between the zebra thresholds.
By the 1960s, the need for a new international terminal had become apparent, and work commenced in late 1966. Much of the new terminal was designed by Paynter and Dixon Industries. The plans for the design are held by the State Library of New South Wales.
The new terminal was officially opened on 3 May 1970, by HM Queen Elizabeth II. The first Boeing 747 "Jumbo Jet" at the airport, Pan American's Clipper Flying Cloud (N734PA), arrived on 4 October 1970. The east-west runway was then 2,500 m (8,300 ft) long; in the 1970s the north-south runway was expanded to become one of the longest runways in the southern hemisphere. The international terminal was expanded in 1992 and has undergone several refurbishments since then, including one that was completed in early 2000 in order to re-invent the airport in time for the 2000 Olympic Games held in Sydney. The airport additionally underwent another project development that began in 2010 to extend the transit zone which brought new duty free facilities, shops & leisure areas for passengers.
The limitations of having only two runways that crossed each other had become apparent and governments grappled with Sydney's airport capacity for decades; eventually the controversial decision to build a third runway was made. The third runway was parallel to the existing runway 16/34, entirely on reclaimed land from Botany Bay. A proposed new airport on the outskirts of Sydney was shelved in 2004, before being re-examined in 20092012 showing that Kingsford Smith airport will not be able to cope by 2030.
The "third runway", which the Commonwealth government commenced development of in 1989 and completed in 1994, remained controversial because of increased aircraft movements, especially over many inner suburbs. In 1995 the Common Cause - No Aircraft Noise party (also known as the No Aircraft Noise Party) was formed to contest the state seat of Marrickville. The results of the election that year show that the party did not win a seat in parliament, but came close. The party does not appear to have entered candidates for any subsequent election.
In 1995, the Australian Parliament passed the Sydney Airport Curfew Act 1995, which limits the operating hours of the airport. This was done in an effort to curb complaints about aircraft noise. The curfew prevents aircraft from taking off or landing between the hours of 11 pm and 6 am. A limited number of scheduled and approved take-offs and landings are permitted respectively in the "shoulder periods" of 11 pm to midnight and 5 am to 6 am. The Act does not stop all aircraft movements overnight, but limits movements by restricting the types of aircraft that can operate, the runways they can use and the number of flights allowed. During extreme weather, flights are often delayed and it is often the case that people on late flights are unable to travel on a given day. As of 2009[update], fines for violating curfew have been levied against four airlines, with a maximum fine of $550,000 applicable.
In addition to the curfew, Sydney Airport also has a cap of 80 aircraft movements per hour which cannot be exceeded, leading to increased delays during peak hours.
In 2002, the Commonwealth Government sold Sydney Airports Corporation Limited (later renamed Sydney Airport Corporation Limited, SACL), the management authority for the airport, to Southern Cross Airports Corporation Holdings Ltd. 82.93 per cent of SACL is owned by MAp Airports International Limited, a subsidiary of Macquarie Bank, Sydney Airport Intervest GmbH own 12.11 per cent and Ontario Teachers' Australia Trust own 4.96 per cent. SACL holds a 99-year lease on the airport which remains Crown land and as such is categorised as a Leased Federal Airport.
Since the international terminal's original completion, it has undergone two large expansions. One such expansion is underway and will stretch over twenty years (200525). This will include an additional high-rise office block, the construction of a multi-level car park, the expansion of both international and domestic terminals. These expansionsand other plans and policies by Macquarie Bank for airport operationsare seen as controversial, as they are performed without the legal oversight of local councils, which usually act as the local planning authority for such developments. As of April 2006[update], some of the proposed development has been scaled back.
Sydney Airport's International terminal underwent a $500 million renovation that was completed in mid-2010. The upgrade includes a new baggage system, an extra 7,300 m2 (78,577 sq ft) of space for shops and passenger waiting areas and other improvements.
In March 2010, the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission released a report sharply critical of price gouging at Sydney airport, ranking it fifth out of five airports. The report noted Sydney Airport recorded the highest average prices at $13.63 per passenger, compared to the lowest of $7.96 at Melbourne Airport, while the price of short-term parking had almost doubled in the 200809 financial year, from $28 to $50 for four hours. The report also accused the airport of abusing its monopoly power.
In December 2011, Sydney Airport announced a proposal to divide the airport into two airline-alliance-based precincts; integrating international, domestic and regional services under the one roof by 2019. The current domestic Terminal 2 and Terminal 3 would be used by Qantas, Jetstar and members of the oneworld airline alliance while today's international Terminal 1 would be used by Virgin Australia and its international partners. Other international airlines would continue to operate from T1.
In September 2012, Sydney Airport and MD CEO Kerrie Mather announced the airport had abandoned the proposal to create alliance-based terminals in favour of terminals "based around specific airline requirements and (passenger) transfer flows". She stated the plan was to minimise the number of passengers transferring between terminals. In June 2013 the airport released a draft version of its 2013 Masterplan, which proposes operating domestic and international flights from the same terminals using 'swing gates', along with upgrading Terminal 3 (currently the Qantas domestic terminal) to accommodate the Airbus A380.
On 17 February 2014, the Australian Government approved Sydney Airport's Master Plan 2033, which outlines the airport's plans to cater for forecast demand of 74 million passengers in 2033. The plan includes Sydney Airport's first ever integrated ground transport plan.
Sydney Airport has three passenger terminals. The International Terminal is separated from the other two by a runway; therefore, connecting passengers need to allow for longer transfer times.
Terminal 1 was opened on 3 May 1970, replacing the old Overseas Passenger Terminal (which was located where Terminal 3 stands now) and has been greatly expanded since then. Today it is known as the International Terminal, located in the airport's north western sector. It has 25 gates (thirteen in concourse B numbered 837, and twelve in concourse C numbered 5063) served by aerobridges. Pier B is used by Qantas, all Oneworld members and all Skyteam members (except Delta). Pier C is used by Virgin Australia and its partners (including Delta) as well as all Star Alliance members. There are also a number of remote bays which are heavily utilised during peak periods and for parking of idle aircraft during the day.
The terminal building is split into three levels, one each for arrivals, departures and airline offices. The departure level has 20 rows of check-in desks each with 10 single desks making a total of 200 check-in desks. The terminal hosts eight airline lounges: two for Qantas, and one each for Etihad Airways, Air New Zealand, Singapore Airlines, Emirates, American Express and SkyTeam. The terminal underwent a major $500 million redevelopment that was completed in 2010, by which the shopping complex was expanded, outbound customs operations were centralised and the floor space of the terminal increased to 254,000 square metres (2,730,000 sq ft). Further renovations began in 2015 with a reconfiguration and decluttering of outbound and inbound duty-free areas, extension of the airside dining areas and installation of Australian Border Force outbound immigration SmartGates. These works were completed in 2016.
Terminal 2, located in the airport's north-eastern section, was the former home of Ansett Australia's domestic operations. It features 16 parking bays served by aerobridges and several remote bays for regional aircraft. It serves FlyPelican, Jetstar, Regional Express Airlines, Tigerair Australia, Virgin Australia and Virgin Australia Regional Airlines. There are lounges for Regional Express Airlines and Virgin Australia.
Terminal 3 is a domestic terminal, serving Qantas with QantasLink flights having moved their operations from Terminal 2 to Terminal 3 on 16 August 2013. Originally, it was home for Trans Australia Airlines (later named Australian Airlines). Like Terminal 2 it is located in the north-eastern section.
The current terminal building is largely the result of extensions designed by Hassell that were completed in 1999. This included construction of a 60-metre roof span above a new column-free checkin hall and resulted in extending the terminal footprint to 80,000 square metres. There are 14 parking bays served by aerobridges, including two served by dual aerobridges. Terminal 3 features a large Qantas Club lounge, along with a dedicated Business Class and Chairmans lounge. Terminal 3 also has a 'Heritage Collection' located adjacent to gate 13, dedicated to Qantas and including many collections from the airline's 90-plus years of service. It also has a view of the airport's apron and is used commonly by plane-spotters.
Qantas sold its lease of Terminal 3, which was due to continue until 2019, back to Sydney Airport for $535 million. This means Sydney Airport resumes operational responsibility of the terminal, including the lucrative retail areas.
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Sydney Airport had a fourth passenger terminal, east of Terminal 2. This was formerly known as Domestic Express and was used by Regional Express Airlines, and low-cost carriers Virgin Blue (now known as Virgin Australia) and the now-defunct Impulse Airlines, during the time Terminal 2 was closed following the collapse of Ansett Australia. It is now used by DHL Express and Tasman Cargo Airlines as an office building.
The dedicated Freight Terminal is located north of Terminal 1. It is used for international freight operations, except for Tasman Cargo Airlines' trans-Tasman services. It is also used as overflow parking when all Terminal 1 gates are occupied.
|Air Canada||TorontoPearson, Vancouver|
|Air China||BeijingCapital, Chengdu, ShanghaiPudong (ends 31 March 2019)|
|Air New Zealand||Auckland, Christchurch, Norfolk Island, Queenstown, Rarotonga, Wellington|
|Air Niugini||Port Moresby|
|Air Vanuatu||Port Vila|
|AirAsia X||Kuala LumpurInternational|
|Alliance Airlines||Charter: Cairns, Melbourne|
|All Nippon Airways||TokyoHaneda|
|American Airlines||Los Angeles|
|Beijing Capital Airlines||Qingdao|
|British Airways||LondonHeathrow, Singapore|
|Cathay Pacific||Hong Kong|
|China Eastern Airlines||BeijingCapital, Hangzhou, Kunming, Nanjing, ShanghaiPudong, Wuhan, Xi'an|
|China Southern Airlines||Guangzhou, Shenzhen|
|Delta Air Lines||Los Angeles|
|Emirates||BangkokSuvarnabhumi (ends 1 June 2019), Christchurch, DubaiInternational|
|Etihad Airways||Abu Dhabi|
|Fiji Airways||Nadi, Suva|
|FlyPelican||Mudgee, Newcastle, Taree|
|Garuda Indonesia||Denpasar, JakartaSoekarnoHatta|
|Hainan Airlines||Changsha, Haikou, Taiyuan, Xi'an|
|Jetstar Airways||Adelaide, Auckland, Avalon, Ayers Rock, Ballina, Brisbane, Cairns, Christchurch, Darwin, Denpasar, Gold Coast, Hamilton Island, Hobart, Honolulu, Ho Chi Minh City Launceston, Melbourne, Nadi, Perth, Phuket, Proserpine, Queenstown, Sunshine Coast, Townsville|
|LATAM Chile||Auckland, Santiago|
|Malaysia Airlines||Kuala LumpurInternational|
|Qantas|| Adelaide, Alice Springs, Auckland, BangkokSuvarnabhumi, BeijingCapital, Brisbane, Cairns, Canberra, Christchurch, Dallas/Fort Worth, Darwin, Denpasar, Gold Coast, Hamilton Island, Hobart, Hong Kong, Honolulu, JakartaSoekarnoHatta, Johannesburg-OR Tambo, Los Angelesa, LondonHeathrow, Manila, Melbourne, Nadi (resumes 31 March 2019), Nouméa, OsakaKansai, Perth, Queenstown, San Francisco, Santiago de Chile, ShanghaiPudong, Singapore, TokyoHaneda, Wellington|
Seasonal: Broome, Vancouver
|QantasLink||Adelaide, Albury, Armidale, Bendigo (begins 31 March 2019), Brisbane, Canberra, Coffs Harbour, Dubbo, Gold Coast, Hamilton Island, Hobart, Lord Howe Island, Melbourne, Moree, Port Macquarie, Sunshine Coast, Tamworth, Toowoomba Wellcamp, Wagga Wagga|
|Regional Express Airlines||Albury, Armidale, Ballina, Bathurst, Broken Hill, Cooma, Dubbo, Grafton, Griffith, Lismore, Merimbula, Mildura, Moruya, Narrandera, Newcastle, Orange, Parkes, Wagga Wagga|
|Sichuan Airlines||Chongqing, Ürümqi|
|Tigerair Australia||Adelaide, Brisbane, Cairns, Coffs Harbour, Gold Coast, Melbourne, Perth, Proserpine|
|United Airlines||HoustonIntercontinental, Los Angeles, San Francisco|
|Vietnam Airlines||Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City|
|Virgin Australia||Adelaide, Albury, Apia-Faleolo, Auckland, Ayers Rock, Ballina, Brisbane, Cairns, Canberra, Christchurch, Coffs Harbour, Darwin, Denpasar, Gold Coast, Hamilton Island, Hervey Bay, Hobart, Hong Kong, Launceston, Los Angeles, Melbourne, Nadi, Nuku'alofa, Perth, Port Macquarie, Queenstown, Sunshine Coast, Tamworth, Townsville, Wellington|
^a The Qantas flight QF11 from Sydney to New York operates with a stop in Los Angeles, where all passengers disembark and clear US customs while the flight continues to New York carrying all connecting passengers from Sydney, Brisbane and Melbourne. Although the same flight number continues to New York there is an aircraft swap at Los Angeles from an A380 to 787. So an entry for a direct New York flight is not included (the 787 comes from Brisbane). Furthermore, it is not possible to fly solely between LAX and JFK as the US government prohibits foreign airlines from serving domestic flights in the US.
|Cathay Pacific Cargo||Hong Kong, Melbourne|
|DHL Aviation||Auckland, Brisbane, Cairns, Melbourne, Nouméa|
|Emirates SkyCargo||DubaiAl Maktoum, Hong Kong, Singapore|
|FedEx Express||Auckland, Guangzhou, Honolulu, Los Angeles, Manila, Singapore|
|MASkargo||Da Nang, Kuala LumpurInternational|
|Polar Air Cargo||Honolulu, Melbourne|
|Qantas Freight||Auckland, Brisbane, ChicagoO'Hare, Christchurch, Chongqing, Hong Kong, Honolulu, JakartaSoekarno Hatta, Melbourne, ShanghaiPudong|
|Singapore Airlines Cargo||Adelaide, Auckland, Melbourne, Singapore|
|Toll Priority||Brisbane, Melbourne|
|UPS Airlines||Anchorage, Honolulu, Los Angeles|
|Virgin Australia Cargo||Cairns, Melbourne, Brisbane, Townsville|
The local, state and federal governments have investigated the viability of building a second major airport in Sydney since the 1940s. Significant passenger growth at Sydney Airport indicates the potential need for a second airport for example, total passenger numbers increased from less than 10 million in 198586 to over 25 million in 200001, and over 40 million in 201516. This growth is expected to continue, with Sydney region passenger demand forecast to reach 87 million passengers by 2035.
On 15 April 2014, the Federal Government announced that Badgerys Creek would be Sydney's second international airport, to be known as Western Sydney Airport. Press releases suggest that the airport will not be subject to curfews and will open in phases, initially with a single airport runway and terminal. It would be linked to Sydney Airport by local roads and motorways, and by extensions to the existing suburban rail network. In May 2017 the Federal Government announced it would build (pay for) the second Sydney Airport, after the Sydney Airport Group declined the Government's offer to build the second airport.
Sydney Airport handled over 27 million domestic passengers in 2017.
|Rank||Airport||Passengers handled||% Change|
Sydney Airport handled 15.6 million international passengers in 201617.
|Rank||Airport||Passengers handled||% change|
In 201617 Sydney Airport handled 489,183 tonnes of international air freight and 23,349 tonnes of international air mail.
The airport is accessible via the Airport Link underground rail line. The International Airport railway station is located below the International terminal, while the Domestic Airport railway station is located under the car park between the domestic terminals (Terminal 2 and Terminal 3). While the stations are part of the Sydney Trains suburban network, they are privately owned and operated by the Airport Link consortium and their use is subject to a surcharge. The trains that service the airport are regular suburban trains. Unlike airport trains at some other airports, these do not have special provisions for customers with luggage, do not operate express to the airport and may have all seats occupied by commuters before the trains arrive at the airport.
State Transit operates route 400 from the airport to Bondi Junction railway station stopping at both the International and Domestic terminals and Mascot railway station. This route connects to the eastern suburbs  while Transit Systems Sydney operates route 420 from Westfield Eastgardens to Burwood via both International and Domestic terminals, as well as Banksia and Rockdale railway stations.
Sydney Airport has road connections in all directions. Southern Cross Drive (M1), a motorway, is the fastest link with the city centre. The M5 South Western Motorway (including the M5 East Freeway) links the airport with the south-western suburbs of Sydney. A ring road runs around the airport consisting of Airport Drive, Qantas Drive, General Holmes Drive, M5 East Freeway and Marsh Street. General Holmes Drive features a tunnel under the main north-south runway and three taxiways as well as providing access to an aircraft viewing area. Inside the airport a part-ring road Ross Smith Avenue (named after Ross MacPherson Smith) connects the Domestic Terminal with the control tower, the general aviation area, car-rental company storage yards, long-term car park, heliport, various retail operations and a hotel. A perimeter road runs inside the secured area for authorised vehicles only.
The Airport runs several official car parksDomestic Short Term, Domestic Remote Long Term, and International Short/Long Term.
The International Terminal is located beside a wide pedestrian and bicycle path. It links Mascot and Sydney City in the north-east with Tempe (via a foot bridge over Alexandra Canal) and Botany Bay to the south-west. All terminals offer bicycle racks and are also easily accessible by foot from nearby areas.