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Airport Boston (USA) - Logan International

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General Edward Lawrence Logan International Airport
Summary
Airport type Public
Owner Massachusetts Port Authority (Massport)
Serves Greater Boston and New England
Location East Boston and Winthrop, Massachusetts, U.S.
Hub for
Focus city for
Elevation AMSL 20 ft / 6 m
Coordinates 42°2147N 071°0023W / 42.36306°N 71.00639°W / 42.36306; -71.00639Coordinates: 42°2147N 071°0023W / 42.36306°N 71.00639°W / 42.36306; -71.00639
Website boston-logan-airport.com
Maps

FAA airport diagram
BOS
Location within Massachusetts / United States
BOS
BOS (the US)
Runways
Direction Length Surface
ft m
4L/22R 7,861 2,396 Asphalt
4R/22L 10,006 3,050 Asphalt
9/27 7,001 2,134 Asphalt
14/32 5,000 1,524 Asphalt
15L/33R 2,557 779 Asphalt
15R/33L 10,083 3,073 Asphalt
Statistics (2017)
Aircraft operations 401,371[3]
Passengers 38,412,419[3]

Logan International Airport[6][7] (IATA: BOS, ICAO: KBOS, FAA LID: BOS), officially known as General Edward Lawrence Logan International Airport and also commonly known as Boston Logan International Airport, is an international airport in the East Boston neighborhood of Boston, Massachusetts, United States (and partly in the town of Winthrop, Massachusetts). It covers 2,384 acres (965 ha), has six runways and four passenger terminals, and employs an estimated 16,000 people. It is the largest airport in both the Commonwealth of Massachusetts and the New England region in terms of passenger volume and cargo handling, as well as the 16th-busiest airport in the United States, with 25.5 million total passengers in 2015.[8] It is named after General Edward Lawrence Logan. In 2016, Massport reported an 8.5% increase in passenger traffic comparing 2015 to 2016, giving the airport a total of about 27.7 million passengers.[9]

The airport is a focus city for Azores Airlines, Delta Air Lines and JetBlue Airways.[10][2] The regional airline Cape Air carries out hub operations from Boston. American and United also carry out significant operations from the airport, including daily transcontinental flights. All of the major U.S. air carriers offer flights from Boston to all or the majority of their primary and secondary hubs. It is also a destination of many major European airlines. Logan Airport was a hub for Air New England, Provincetown-Boston Airlines, American Eagle, Braniff International Airways,[11] Northeast Airlines, and Delta Air Lines (though now demoted to focus city status), as well as a focus city for AirTran Airways, American Airlines, Pan American World Airways, Trans World Airlines, and US Airways.

The airport has frequent service to destinations throughout North America (including the United States, Canada and Mexico), Latin America, the Caribbean, the North Atlantic region (including Bermuda and the Azores), the Middle East, Europe, and Asia.[12] Recently, with the advent of mid-sized long-range airliners such as the Boeing 787 Dreamliner, as well as the growing New England economy, Logan has seen rapid growth in international traffic, with new routes from airlines such as Aeromexico, Avianca, Avianca El Salvador, Cathay Pacific, Copa Airlines, El Al, Emirates, Hainan Airlines, Japan Airlines, KLM, Korean Air, LATAM Airlines, Level, Norwegian Air Shuttle, Qatar Airways, Scandinavian Airlines, Sichuan Airlines, TAP Air Portugal, Turkish Airlines, WestJet Encore, and WOW air as well as increased traffic on existing routes to Canada, Europe, Asia, South America, and the Middle East. This has turned Boston Logan into one of America's fastest growing airports, especially for international traffic.

History

Origins

Logan Airport opened on September 8, 1923, and was used mainly by the Massachusetts Air Guard and the Army Air Corps. It was then called Jeffery Field. The first scheduled commercial passenger flights were on Colonial Air Transport between Boston and New York City in 1927.[13] On January 1, 1936, the airport's weather station became the official point for Boston's weather observations and records by the National Weather Service.[14]

Early domestic expansion

Until around 1950 the airline terminal was at 42.367N 71.0275W; on the 1946 topo map the airfield extended less than 5,000 ft east from there (the east end of the field was at 42.361N 71.012W NAD83). During the 1940s the airport added 1,800 acres (730 ha) of landfill in Boston Harbor, taken from the former Governors, Noddle's and Apple Islands. In 1943 the state renamed the airport after Lt. General Edward Lawrence Logan, a SpanishAmerican War officer from South Boston.[13][15] In 1952, Logan Airport became the first in the United States with an indirect rapid transit connection, with the opening of the Airport station on the Blue Line.

The March 1947 diagram shows 7,000 ft (2,100 m) runway 4 (future 4L) in use, with runways 9 and 33 under construction; a different runway 33 ran 6,700 ft (2,000 m) northwestward from the present intersection of 4R and 9, and runway 25 ran 4,000 ft (1,200 m) southwest from the present intersection of 4L and 33. The December 1950 diagram shows a layout similar to the current one: 7,000 ft (2,100 m) runway 4L, 10,000-ft 4R, 7,000-ft 9 and 7,650-ft 33.

Boston became a transatlantic gateway after World War II. In the late 1940s, American Overseas Airlines began operating a weekly Boston-Shannon-London service,[16] and Pan American World Airways began operating nonstop service to Shannon Airport in Ireland and Santa Maria Airport in the Azores, continuing to London and Lisbon respectively.[17] By the early 1950s, BOAC also offered nonstop Stratocruiser service to Prestwick Airport in Scotland,[18] and Air France operated a multi-stop Constellation service linking Boston to Orly Airport in Paris.[19] The April 1957 Official Airline Guide shows 49 weekday departures on American, 31 Eastern, 25 Northeast, 8 United, 7 TWA domestic, 6 National, 6 Mohawk, 2 TCA and one Provincetown-Boston. In addition TWA had nine departures a week to or from the Atlantic, Pan Am had 18, Air France 8, BOAC 4 and LAI 4.[20]

Introduction of the jumbo jet and early international expansion

The jumbo jet era began at Logan in summer 1970 when Pan Am started daily Boeing 747s to London Heathrow Airport. Currently, the Boeing 747-400 is scheduled on flights to Boston by British Airways[21] and Lufthansa. Lufthansa also operates the Boeing 747-8i on one of its daily nonstop flights to Frankfurt.[22]

Terminal E was the second largest international arrivals facility in the United States when it opened in 1974.[23] Between 1974 and 2015, the number of international travelers at Logan has tripled[citation needed]. International long-haul travel has been the fastest growing market sector at the airport. Massachusetts Port Authority (Massport) undertook the "Logan Modernization Project" from 1994 to 2006: a new parking garage, a new hotel, moving walkways, terminal expansions and improvements, and two-tiered roadways to separate arrival and departure traffic.[13]

Massport's relationship with nearby communities has been strained since the mid-1960s,[24] when the agency took control of a parcel of residential land and popular fishing area near the northwest side of the airfield. This project was undertaken to extend Runway 15R/33L, which later became Logan's longest runway.[25] Residents of the neighborhood, known as Wood Island, were bought out of their homes and forced to relocate. Public opposition came to a head when residents lay down in the streets to block bulldozers and supply trucks from reaching the construction zone.[26]

Modern international expansion and runway additions

Runway 14/32, Logan's first major runway addition in more than forty years, opened on November 23, 2006. It was proposed in 1973 but was delayed in the courts.[27] According to Massport records, the first aircraft to use the new airstrip was a Continental Express ERJ-145 regional jet landing on Runway 32, on the morning of December 2, 2006.

In April 2007 the FAA approved construction of a center field taxiway long-sought by Massport. The 9,300-foot (2,830 m) taxiway is between, and parallel to, Runways 4R/22L and 4L/22R. News of the project angered neighboring residents.[28] In 2009 the taxiway opened ahead of schedule and under budget.[29] To ensure the taxiway is not mistaken for a runway, "TAXI" is written in large yellow letters at each end.

A scene from the 2006 film The Departed was filmed at Logan, inside the connector bridge between Terminal E and the Central Parking Garage. Terminal C and several United Airlines and Northwest Airlines aircraft can be seen in the background. Parts of the Delta Air Lines 2007 "Anthem" commercial were filmed in Terminal A as well as the connector bridge between Terminal A and Central Parking.

In October 2009 US Airways announced it would close its Boston crew base in May 2010. The airline cited an "operations realignment" as the reason.[30] Over 400 employees were transferred or terminated.[31]

After starting service to Logan in 2004, JetBlue was a major operator at Logan Airport by 2008 and its largest carrier by 2011, with flights to cities throughout North America and the Caribbean.[32] The airline has plans to expand to 150+ flights by the end of 2015.[33]

The Airbus A380 first landed at Logan International Airport for compatibility checks on February 8, 2010. On March 26, 2017, British Airways began flying the A380 to Logan, operating the aircraft three times per week.[34]

Facilities and infrastructure

Located partly in East Boston and partly in the Town of Winthrop, on Boston Harbor,[35] Logan International Airport covers an area of 2,384 acres (965 ha) which contains six runways:[4]

  • Runway 4L/22R: 7,861 ft × 150 ft (2,396 m × 46 m), Surface: Asphalt
  • Runway 4R/22L: 10,006 ft × 150 ft (3,050 m × 46 m), Surface: Asphalt
  • Runway 9/27: 7,001 ft × 150 ft (2,134 m × 46 m), Surface: Asphalt
  • Runway 14/32: 5,000 ft × 100 ft (1,524 m × 30 m), Surface: Asphalt
  • Runway 15L/33R: 2,557 ft × 100 ft (779 m × 30 m), Surface: Asphalt
  • Runway 15R/33L: 10,083 ft × 150 ft (3,073 m × 46 m), Surface: Asphalt

ILS is available for runways 4R, 15R, 22L, 27, and 33L, with runways 4R and 33L are certified for CAT III Instrument Landing operations. The other runways with ILS are certified for CAT I Instrument Landing operations.[36] EMAS pads are located at the starting thresholds of runways 22R and 33L.[37]

Depending on the prevailing winds, different runways are used for takeoffs and landings:

Logan flight patterns[a][38]
Wind from Preferred Runways Percentage of operations
Departures Arrivals
NE 4L,[b] 4R, 9 4L, 4R 18%
SW 22L, 22R 22L, 22R,[b] 27 28%
NW 33L, 27 33L, 32, 27 37%
SE 15R, 14, 9 15R, 15L 17%
Notes
  1. ^ When operating three runways, Logan can accommodate 120 operations per hour in ideal weather. This drops to 60 operations per hour in poor conditions and a single runway.
  2. ^ a b 4L/22R handles non-jet operations only when the flight path takes aircraft over the city.

The distinctive central control tower, nearly a dozen stories high, is a local landmark with its pair of segmented elliptical pylons and a six-story platform trussed between them.

Logan Airport has two cargo facilities: North Cargo is adjacent to Terminal E and South Cargo adjacent to Terminals A and B.[37] North Cargo is also the location of several maintenance hangars, including those operated by American Airlines, Delta Air Lines, and JetBlue.

Runway 14/32 addition

Runway 14/32, which opened to air traffic on November 23, 2006, is unidirectional. Runway 32 is used for landings and 14 is used for takeoffs. Massport is barred by a court order from using the runway for overland landings or takeoffs, except in emergencies.[39]

There was fierce opposition towards the construction of 14/32 among communities adjacent to the northwest side of the airport, such as Chelsea and East Boston, as authorities acknowledged these areas would likely see increased noise levels. Many Residents of Winthrop and Revere also joined in opposition[citation needed], even though Massport had predicted the new traffic patterns allowed by 14/32 would actually reduce overflights and noise in those areas.

Since the opening of the new runway, there has been disagreement about when and how often it should operate. Residents have demanded a minimum of 11.5-knot (21.3 km/h) northwest winds, slightly higher than the 10-knot (19 km/h) threshold favored by Massport.

The new runway 14/32 reduces the need for improving existing Runway 15L/33R, which, at only 2,557 feet (779 m) is among the shortest hard-surface runways at major airports in the United States. In 1988, Massport had proposed a 800-foot (240 m) extension to 15L/33R (a project which would have required additional filling-in some land along a "clam bed"), but was thwarted by a court injunction.[40]

Boston's Hyatt Harborside Hotel, which sits only a few hundred yards from the runway threshold, was built primarily to prevent Massport from ever extending the length of 14/32 or using it for takeoffs or landings over the city. Massachusetts state legislators carefully chose the location of the hoteldirectly in the runway centerlineprior to its construction in 1992.[41]

FBOs

The airport is served by several Fixed-Base Operators (FBO), which handle fueling, ground handling, aircraft cleaning, cargo service and aircraft maintenance. They include Swissport USA and Ground Service International. General aviation, which is adjacent to the North Cargo area, is handled by Signature Flight Support.[42]

Public safety

Police services are provided by the Massachusetts State Police Troop F. Fire protection is the responsibility of the Massport Fire Rescue.[43] Even though the airport is technically within city limits, under Massachusetts state law municipal police such as the Boston Police Department do not have jurisdiction on Massport property.[44]

A 250-foot security zone, established in 2002, surrounds the waters around the airport which are marked by 29 buoys indicating the restricted area. The area is patrolled by the Massachusetts State Police, the Boston Police Department, the Massachusetts Environmental Police, the United States Coast Guard and the Boston and Winthrop Harbormasters. Anyone who enters the zone for non-emergency purposes is subject to prosecution and is entered into a State Police database that tracks offenders.[45][46]

Terminals

Logan International Airport has four lettered passenger terminals, A, B, C, and E, and 102 gate positions total.[47] With the exception of flights from destinations with U.S. Customs and Border Protection preclearance, which includes all flights to Logan from Canada, U.S. Territories, and Ireland, all inbound international flights arrive at Terminal E for customs screening since the other terminals do not have customs screening facilities. All terminals are connected by pre-security shuttle buses and by the SL1 branch of the MBTA Silver Line BRT, as well as between Terminals A, B, and E via pre-security moving walkways.[48] Moving walkways also connect the terminals to a central parking garage designed for consolidated service between all four terminals and the garage itself.[49] Massport ultimately plans to connect all terminals and gates post-security, thereby allowing for seamless connections between flights from different terminals.[citation needed] The concession program at the airport is developed, leased and managed by AirMall USA (formerly BAA USA) in Terminals B and E and Westfield Concession Management Inc. in Terminals A and C.

Terminal A

Terminal A, which replaced a 1970s-era building designed by Minoru Yamasaki once occupied by the now-defunct Eastern Air Lines,[50] opened to passengers on March 16, 2005. The terminal, designed by Hellmuth, Obata and Kassabaum,[51] is divided into a main terminal (housing gates A1A11) and a satellite building (housing gates A13A22). The main terminal and the satellite building are connected through an underground walkway.[52] The new redesigned Terminal A was developed under a special facility lease between Massachusetts Port Authority and Delta Air Lines. The lease was signed on August 16, 2001 and development began. On September 14, 2005, six months after opening, Delta filed for bankruptcy and thus had to reduce the number of gates it leased in Terminal A.[53] Terminal A features two Delta Sky Clubs. One is located on the third floor of the satellite building, and a newer one opened at the site of the old Continental Airlines Presidents Club in the main terminal building.[54]

The building is the first airport terminal in the United States to be LEED certified for environmentally friendly design by the U.S. Green Building Council. Among the building's features are heat-reflecting roof and windows, low-flow faucets and waterless urinals, self-dimming lights and stormwater filtration.[40]

Southwest moved to the terminal from Terminal E in April 2015 utilizing gates A18A22 in the satellite portion of the terminal so as to provide more space for international traffic at Terminal E.[55]

Terminal B

Terminal B, designed by John Carl Warnecke & Associates and Desmond & Lord, Inc., opened in 1974.[56] Pier B was completed for US Airways in 1974 and Pier A for American in 1975.[56] The terminal remained largely unchanged until US Airways expanded its operations at Logan in 1979 and improvements designed by HNTB were constructed in 1980.[56] From 1980 until 2000, numerous small projects including passenger seating area improvements, concessions expansions and passenger lounges were completed at both piers.[56][57] American's facilities were renovated in 1995 and redesigned by Gresham, Smith & Partners,[57][58] and US Airways' facilities were renovated in 1998 and 2000, and redesigned by URS Corporation with Turner Construction serving as the construction manager.[57][59]

Until 2014, Terminal B was split into north and south buildings, with a parking garage between the two buildings. The gates of the south building (primarily occupied by American and housing an Admirals Club[60]) are divided into three groups: B1B3, B4B14 and B15B19. Gates B1B3 are the exclusive use of Air Canada. There is a single security lane for these three gates resulting in short wait times. However, to reach other gates in Terminal B including connections to Air Canada's Star Alliance partner United, it is necessary to leave the secure area and re-enter. Post-security, there is only a grab-and-go restaurant and there is no airline lounge access. Since passengers arriving from Canada are pre-cleared via U.S. Customs and Border Protection, passengers do not need to pass through Terminal E's international arrival facility. Gates B414 and B15B19 are connected by a walkway post-security. The gates of the north building (primarily occupied by American and United, both of which operate airline lounges in the terminal[61]) are divided into two groups: B20B36 and B37B38. Gates B2029 are used by United while gates B30B36 serve American. Gates B37 and B38 are home to Spirit.[52]

Between 2012 and 2014, Terminal B underwent a $160 million renovation, which was completed in April 2014. It created a post-security walkway that connects Terminal B North to Terminal B South. The renovation also included 24 new ticket counter spots, eight new departure lounges, new concession space, and a new baggage carousel.[62] United, formerly located in Terminals A and C, began operating all flights out of Terminal B effective April 2014.[63]

Terminal C

Terminal C opened in 1967 and was designed by Perry, Shaw, Hepburn and Dean.[64] It was renovated in 1987, 2002 and 2005.[57] It has four groups of gates: C8-C10, C11C21, C25C36 and C40C42.[52] The two Terminal C security checkpoints providing access to Gates C11 through C21 on the left and Gates C25 to C36 on the right were replaced by a common checkpoint on July 20, 2011.[65]

Continuing the renovations of Terminal C, a post-security connection between Terminal C and Terminal E opened in Summer 2016, allowing for seamless connections between the two terminals, part of Massport's plan to ultimately connect all terminals post-security.[66] Massport has plans to build a post-security connector between gates C8C36 and C40C42 which will make all gates accessible through one common security checkpoint.[67]

The former Terminal D gates (the three gates at the north end of Terminal C) were renumbered and labeled as part of Terminal E (E1C, E1D & E1E) on February 28, 2006. These three gates were used, as part of Terminal E, by Southwest until their move to Terminal A.[68] In 2016, following construction of an airside connector between Terminals E and C, these three gates were renumbered again to become the present gates C5-C7 (also known as gates E1-E3 in reverse order from Terminal C's chronological order).

The airport's USO Lounge is located in the baggage claim area of Terminal C, lower level. It offers most typical amenities as other markets as major as Greater Boston. Military ID is mandatory.

The terminal is also home to the airport's chapel, Our Lady of the Airways, which is considered the first airport chapel in the United States. The chapel was originally Catholic, but is now non-denominational.[69][70] The chapel has existed in two incarnations. The chapel opened in 1951.[71]

The terminal serves Aer Lingus, Alaska Airlines, Cape Air, JetBlue, Sun Country, and TAP Air Portugal (departures only).

Terminal E

Terminal E, also known as the John A. Volpe International Terminal named after the former Governor of Massachusetts and U.S. Secretary of Transportation,[13] serves as the international terminal for Logan and therefore houses the majority of its international arrivals (Note: Terminal E does not house arriving flights from Ireland, U.S. Territories, and most flights from Canada (although Porter Airlines does use Terminal E), nor by any airline from an origin with U.S. border preclearance at aforementioned origin). Also, most non-U.S. carriers excluding Aer Lingus, Air Canada, TAP Air Portugal, and WestJet depart from Terminal E. The terminal was completed in 1974 and designed by Kubitz & Papi, Inc. and Desmond & Lord, Inc.[72] Massport completed the "Terminal E Modernization" project in August 1997 which improved the passenger facilities.[57] The International Gateway Project, designed by Skidmore, Owings and Merrill and DMJM Aviation, added 410,000 square feet to the terminal in 2003 and the entire project was completed in 2008.[57]

Terminal E has a total of 12 gates numbered E1E12. Gates E10E12 were recently reconstructed as part of the terminal E modernization project to accommodate Airbus A380 aircraft. In this, a second jet bridge was added to each of those three gates to make upper-level boarding on the A380 possible. Currently, British Airways has seasonal A380 service to Logan, although Emirates has expressed interest in using their A380s on their route between Dubai and Logan, and vice versa. All gates within the terminal are designated as common-use, meaning gates are assigned mostly based on an operational need, and no specific airline claims ownership of any of those gates.[73] All ticket counters and gates in Terminal E are shared among the international carriers. Terminal E has several airline lounges (e.g., Air France Lounge,[74] British Airways' First Lounge and Terraces Lounge,[75] Lufthansa's First Lounge and Business Lounges,[76] Virgin Atlantic's Clubhouse Lounge[77]).

The third level of Terminal E is used for departures, the second for passport control via U.S. Customs and Border Protection, and the ground level for arrivals and customs, also via U.S. Customs and Border Protection.[73] The Federal Inspection Station located in Terminal E is capable of processing over 2,000 passengers per hour.[40]

Terminal E underwent a $100 million renovation which started in 2014, and includes a post-security connector between Terminals E and C (opened summer 2016), improved immigration and passport control kiosks, and gates capable of serving the Airbus A380 (i.e., gates E10E12).[78] The Terminal E expansion was completed in late January 2017.[66]

Airlines and destinations

Passenger
AirlinesDestinationsRefs
Aer Lingus Dublin
Seasonal: Shannon
[79]
Aeroméxico Mexico City [80]
Air Canada Seasonal: TorontoPearson, Vancouver [81][82]
Air Canada Express Halifax, MontréalTrudeau, Ottawa, TorontoPearson [81]
Air France ParisCharles de Gaulle [83]
Alaska Airlines Los Angeles, Portland (OR), San Diego, San Francisco, Seattle/Tacoma [84]
Alitalia RomeFiumicino [85]
American Airlines Charlotte, ChicagoO'Hare, Dallas/Fort Worth, Los Angeles, Miami, New YorkJFK, New YorkLaGuardia, Philadelphia, PhoenixSky Harbor, WashingtonNational
Seasonal: Cancún, Montego Bay, Providenciales, Punta Cana
[86]
American Eagle Harrisburg, New YorkJFK, Pittsburgh (ends December 18, 2018),[87] Rochester (NY), Syracuse [86]
Avianca Bogotá [88]
Avianca El Salvador San Salvador [88]
Azores Airlines Ponta Delgada, Terceira
Seasonal: Lisbon
[89]
Boutique Air Massena [90]
British Airways LondonHeathrow [91]
Cabo Verde Airlines Praia [92]
Cape Air Albany, Augusta (ME), Bar Harbor, Hyannis, Lebanon, Martha's Vineyard, Nantucket, Provincetown, Rockland, Rutland, Saranac Lake/Lake Placid [93]
Cathay Pacific Hong Kong [94]
Copa Airlines Panama City [95]
Delta Air Lines Amsterdam, Atlanta, Austin, Bermuda, Cincinnati, Detroit, Fort Lauderdale, Fort Myers, Las Vegas, LondonHeathrow, Los Angeles, Minneapolis/St. Paul, New YorkJFK, New YorkLaGuardia, Orlando, ParisCharles de Gaulle, Raleigh/Durham, Salt Lake City, San Francisco, Seattle/Tacoma, Tampa, West Palm Beach
Seasonal: Aruba, Cancún, Dublin, Lisbon (begins May 23, 2019),[96] Miami, Montego Bay, Providenciales, Punta Cana, St. Thomas
[97]
Delta Connection Buffalo, Charleston (SC), Cincinnati, ColumbusGlenn, Indianapolis, Jacksonville (FL), Kansas City, Milwaukee, Nashville, New YorkJFK, Norfolk, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Raleigh/Durham, Richmond, Savannah
Seasonal: Fort Myers, Myrtle Beach, Nassau, New Orleans, Sarasota (resumes March 2, 2019),[98] West Palm Beach
[97][99][100]
El Al Tel AvivBen Gurion [101]
Emirates DubaiInternational [102]
Hainan Airlines BeijingCapital, ShanghaiPudong [103]
Hawaiian Airlines Honolulu (begins April 4, 2019)[104] [105]
Iberia Madrid [106]
Icelandair ReykjavíkKeflavík [107]
Japan Airlines TokyoNarita [108]
JetBlue Airways Aruba, Atlanta, Austin, Baltimore, Barbados, Bermuda, Buffalo, Burbank, Cancún, Charleston (SC), Charlotte, ChicagoO'Hare, Cleveland, Dallas/Fort Worth, Denver, Detroit, Fort Lauderdale, Fort Myers, Havana (begins November 10, 2018),[109] HoustonHobby, Jacksonville (FL), Las Vegas, Long Beach, Los Angeles, Mexico City (begins October 25, 2018),[109] Minneapolis/St. Paul, Montego Bay, Nashville, Nassau, New Orleans, New YorkJFK, New YorkLaGuardia, Newark, Orlando, Philadelphia, PhoenixSky Harbor, Pittsburgh, Punta Cana, Raleigh/Durham, Richmond, Salt Lake City, San Diego, San Francisco, San Jose (CA), San Juan, Santiago de los Caballeros, Santo Domingo-Las Américas, Savannah, Seattle/Tacoma, Syracuse, Tampa, WashingtonDulles, WashingtonNational, West Palm Beach
Seasonal: Grand Cayman, Hayden/Steamboat Springs (begins December 15, 2018),[110] Liberia (CR), Martha's Vineyard, Nantucket, Oakland, Palm Springs (begins February 14, 2019),[111] Port-au-Prince, Portland (OR), Providenciales, Puerto Plata, Sacramento, Sarasota, St. Lucia, St. Maarten (resumes February 16, 2019),[112] St. Thomas (resumes February 14, 2019)[113]
[114][115][116]
KLM Amsterdam (resumes March 31, 2019) [117]
Korean Air SeoulIncheon (begins April 12, 2019)[118] [119]
LATAM Brasil São PauloGuarulhos [120][121]
Level Barcelona [122][123]
Lufthansa Frankfurt, Munich [124]
Norwegian Air Shuttle LondonGatwick, ParisCharles de Gaulle [125][126]
Porter Airlines TorontoBilly Bishop [127]
Qatar Airways Doha [128]
Scandinavian Airlines Seasonal: Copenhagen [129][130]
Sichuan Airlines Chengdu (begins December 17, 2018)[131] [132]
Silver Airways Seasonal: Bar Harbor [133][134]
Southwest Airlines Atlanta, Austin, Baltimore, ChicagoMidway, ColumbusGlenn, DallasLove, Denver, HoustonHobby, Indianapolis, Kansas City, Milwaukee, Nashville, St. Louis
Seasonal: New Orleans, Orlando (resumes April 13, 2019), Tampa
[135]
Spirit Airlines Atlanta, Baltimore, Fort Lauderdale, Las Vegas, Myrtle Beach, New Orleans, Orlando
Seasonal: ChicagoO'Hare, Cleveland, Detroit, Fort Myers, Minneapolis/St. Paul, Tampa, West Palm Beach
[136][137]
Sun Country Airlines Minneapolis/St. Paul [138]
Swiss International Air Lines Zürich [139]
TAP Air Portugal Lisbon [140]
Tradewind Aviation White Plains [141]
Turkish Airlines IstanbulAtatürk [142]
United Airlines ChicagoO'Hare, Denver, HoustonIntercontinental, Los Angeles, Newark, San Francisco, WashingtonDulles [143]
United Express ChicagoO'Hare, Cleveland, Newark, WashingtonDulles [143]
Virgin Atlantic LondonHeathrow
Seasonal: Manchester (UK)
[144]
WestJet Encore Halifax, TorontoPearson [145]
WOW air ReykjavíkKeflavík [146]
Cargo

Logan Airport is a medium-sized airport in terms of cargo, handling 684,875 tons of freight in 2012, making it the 10th busiest airport in the U.S. in terms of cargo. It handles many U.S.-based cargo airlines, including DHL Aviation, FedEx Express and UPS Airlines. It also has cargo offices for many international cargo carriers, including British Airways World Cargo, Cathay Pacific Cargo, China Airlines Cargo, EVA Air Cargo, LATAM Cargo Chile and Saudia Cargo.[147] It has two cargo complexes: The North Cargo Terminal, located near Terminal E, and South Cargo, located near Terminal A.[37] Given the airport is the 10th busiest cargo facility in the country, with many companies operating at the airport, it has been recognized that future expansion of cargo from Logan is limited due to constrained physical space for expansion.[148]

Statistics

Top destinations
Busiest domestic routes from Boston Logan
(July 2017 June 2018)
[149]
Rank Airport Passengers Airlines Served
1 Atlanta, Georgia 976,610 Delta, JetBlue, Southwest, Spirit
2 ChicagoO'Hare, Illinois 962,580 American, JetBlue, Spirit, United
3 San Francisco, California 730,350 Alaska, Delta, JetBlue, United
4 Los Angeles, California 720,840 Alaska, American, Delta, JetBlue, United
5 WashingtonNational, D.C. 709,450 American, JetBlue
6 New YorkLaGuardia, New York 635,050 American, Delta, JetBlue
7 Baltimore, Maryland 580,300 JetBlue, Southwest, Spirit
8 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 577,270 American, JetBlue
9 Orlando, Florida 566,630 Delta, JetBlue, Southwest, Spirit
10 Newark, New Jersey 514,560 JetBlue, United
Busiest international routes to and from BOS (2016)[150]
Rank City Passengers Carriers
1 LondonHeathrow, United Kingdom 791,190 British Airways, Delta, Virgin Atlantic
2 TorontoPearson, Canada 450,085 Air Canada, WestJet
3 Dublin, Ireland 347,279 Aer Lingus, Delta
4 DubaiInternational, United Arab Emirates 346,464 Emirates
5 ParisCharles de Gaulle, France 344,087 Air France, Delta, Norwegian Air Shuttle, Primera Air
6 ReykjavíkKeflavík, Iceland 334,435 Icelandair, WOW air
7 Frankfurt, Germany 273,197 Lufthansa
8 Amsterdam, Netherlands 255,965 Delta
9 TorontoBilly Bishop, Canada 196,029 Porter Airlines
10 Zurich, Switzerland 179,885 Swiss
11 Munich, Germany 145,972 Lufthansa
12 IstanbulAtatürk, Turkey 140,412 Turkish Airlines
13 Shannon, Ireland 130,466 Aer Lingus
14 BeijingCapital, China 129,695 Hainan Airlines
15 MontrealTrudeau, Canada 122,976 Air Canada Express
16 Oranjestad, Aruba 121,261 JetBlue, Delta
17 Doha, Qatar 120,783 Qatar Airways
18 Hong Kong 112,378 Cathay Pacific
19 TokyoNarita, Japan 112,214 Japan Airlines
20 RomeFiumicino, Italy 109,628 Alitalia
Airline market share
Busiest airlines serving BOS (June 2017 May 2018)[151]
Rank Carrier Passengers Share
1 JetBlue Airways 9,813,000 31.25%
2 American Airlines 6,313,000 20.10%
3 Delta Air Lines 4,231,000 13.47%
4 United Airlines 3,759,000 11.97%
5 Southwest Airlines 2,974,000 9.47%
Annual traffic
Annual traffic[5][152][153]
Passengers Change from previous year Aircraft operations Cargo
(tonnage)
1998 26,526,708 507,449 701,921
1999 27,052,078 02.0% 494,816 712,084
2000 27,726,833 02.5% 487,996 726,174
2001 24,474,930 011.7% 463,125 672,399
2002 22,696,141 07.3% 392,079 694,805
2003 22,791,169 00.4% 373,304 672,419
2004 26,142,516 014.7% 405,258 679,637
2005 27,087,905 03.6% 409,066 670,759
2006 27,725,443 02.4% 406,119 639,534
2007 28,102,455 01.4% 399,537 652,654
2008 26,102,651 07.1% 371,604 621,567
2009 25,512,086 02.3% 345,306 666,888
2010 27,428,962 07.5% 352,643 670,190
2011 28,907,938 05.4% 368,987 684,606
2012 29,325,617 01.4% 354,869 684,875
2013 30,318,631 03.4% 361,339 691,229
2014 31,634,445 04.7% 363,797 695,123
2015 33,449,580 05.7% 372,930 684,970
2016 36,288,042 08.5% 391,222 703,786
2017 38,412,419 05.9% 401,371 679,408

For the 12-month period ending January 31, 2010, the airport had 337,229 aircraft operations, an average of 924 per day: 62% scheduled commercial, 33% air taxi and 5% general aviation.[4]

As of 2017, Logan is the 16th busiest airport in the United States with about 19.1455 million boardings a year (not counting arrivals). In 2010, Logan was the world's 28th busiest airport in terms of aircraft movements. The airport is also the 12th busiest airport in the U.S.-based on international traffic. In 2010, it handled 3,681,739 international passengers.[5] In 2012, it handled 4,350,597 international passengers, a 9.8% increase from 2011.[5] Logan Airport stimulates the New England regional economy by approximately $7.6 billion per year, generating $559.4 million in state and local tax receipts, as of 2006.[154]

In 2011, Logan Airport served an all-time high of 28,800,000 passengers, a 5% increase from 2010.[155] In 2010 Logan Airport handled about 27,428,962 passengers, about 3,681,739 of whom were international passengers.[5] JetBlue carried 29.08% of all passengers for the 12-month period ending August 31, 2014; other leading carriers include American Airlines (24.64%), United Airlines (12.90%) and Delta Air Lines (10.77%).[149] These figures do not include Delta Connection which has significant operations at Logan Airport. Logan Airport also handled over 546,000,000 pounds (248,000,000 kg) of cargo and mail.[5]

As of February 2011, Logan ranks 14th among major U.S. airports for on-time domestic departures with 80% of domestic flights departing on time. The airport ranks 25th in on-time domestic arrivals with 76% of domestic flights arriving on time.[149]

Logan also has flights to the Azores because they link Azores American communities in Massachusetts and Rhode Island.[156]

Ground transportation

Boston Logan International Airport has the accolade of "Easiest Airport to Get To" in a 2007 article on aviation.com because of the variety of options to/from the airport.[157] These options include cars, taxis, the MBTA Blue and Silver lines, regional bus services, shared ride vans, ferries, limousines and an in-house airport operator (Massport) intercity bus common carrier service offered by few U.S. airports, Logan Express, which is essentially Massport's equivalent to services such as Greyhound Lines, and can transport people from all four terminals at Logan to Back Bay, Braintree, Framingham, Peabody, or Woburn, or vice versa. Logan is 2.5 miles (4.0 km) northeast of Back Bay, a short distance compared with airports relative to their distance to an equivalent downtown in other major U.S. cities.[158]

Roads and tolls

By public roads, the airport is accessible via Exit 26 of the Massachusetts Turnpike (Interstate 90, colloquially MassPike), near its eastern terminus, which provides easy access from the west via the Ted Williams Tunnel. East of Exit 26, I-90 transitions to Route 1A to Revere, Lynn, and points north, as well as New Hampshire. From the south, travelers on Interstate 93 can connect to the MassPike east, through the Ted Williams Tunnel and take exit 26 to reach the airport. From the north, I-93 traffic to the airport uses the Callahan Tunnel, Route 1A North. From the North Shore, access is via Route 1A South. Additionally, road traffic from most of downtown Boston, Back Bay, Fenway Park and its surrounding district, or Boston University should use the Callahan Tunnel. The westbound twin tunnel to the Callahan Tunnel is known as the Sumner Tunnel.

As of 2017 eastbound and westbound travel through the tunnels is tolled.[159] There is a $5.25 toll for taxis, which passengers are responsible for.[160]

Public transportation

Massport's Airport Shuttle provides free service between all terminals, the Airport station on the Blue Line and the Rental Car Center, as well as additional service to the water transportation dock located on Harborside Drive.[161]

Massport's Logan Express bus service serves the airport.[162]

The SL1 branch of the MBTA's Silver Line bus rapid transit service connects all Logan terminals with South Station, a major transportation hub in the downtown Boston financial district that serves MBTA Commuter Rail, Amtrak, Red Line subway and intercity bus.[163] Airport station on the MBTA's Blue Line subway, despite its name, is not in the airport terminal itself; free shuttle buses carry passengers between the Airport station and the terminal buildings. The Blue Line connects with the Orange Line at State, which provides service to both North Station and Back Bay Station the two other major rail transportation hubs for Boston. A transfer to the Green Line, which also runs to North Station, is available at Government Center station. The SL3 branch of the Silver Line connects Chelsea with the Airport Station.

The airport is also served full-time by MBTA bus routes 448, 449, and 459, which stop at Terminal C. The airport was originally served full-time by the Crosstown 3 (CT3) bus via the Andrew Red Line station, but after the Silver Line segment to the airport was constructed,[164] service was cut back to Andrew since it is faster to simply ride the Red Line two stops inbound to South Station, and transfer to an airport-bound Silver Line bus.

The MBTA also operates a water shuttle connecting Logan with downtown Boston, Hingham and Hull. On-demand service from the airport to various locations on the downtown waterfront is provided by a fleet of water taxis.

Preceding station   MBTA   Following station
Silver LineTerminus
Silver Line
Transfer at: Airport
toward Chelsea
toward Bowdoin
Blue Line
Transfer at: Airport
toward Wonderland
Limousine and taxi

Limousine pickup is also very common at the airport. Limousine drivers are not allowed to leave their vehicles at the designated pickup areas and pickup locations vary depending on the terminal. For Terminal A, the pickup location is on the arrival level, outside baggage claim, in a small parking lot across the road. For Terminal B, limousine drivers wait for their passengers inside the Terminal B Parking Garage on the lower level. At Terminal C, pickup is on the departure level at the second and third islands from the building. At Terminal E, pickup is also on the arrival level in a small parking lot across the outermost curb. For Public Safety, soliciting passengers anywhere on Logan Airport property by any ground transportation provider is punishable by a $500 fine for each offense.

Taxi operations are coordinated at each terminal by Massport. Massport's regulations prohibit taxis from picking up fares at any location other than the designated taxi stands located at curbside on the lower levels of Terminals A, C and E. For both sides of Terminal B, shuttle van services, limos and taxis all wait for passengers inside the Terminal B Parking Garage on the lower level. Signage inside B terminals directs passengers to the various modes of ground transportation. A large Taxi Pool near the South Cargo complex serves as the staging area for up to 400 taxis, which are typically paged to terminal taxi stands in groups of five or ten after waiting for up to ninety minutes or more.

Metered-rates from Logan Airport to most Boston hotels range from approximately $23.00 to $35.00. The airport fee for all taxi trips leaving Logan is $2.25 and is entered into the taximeter by the driver. In addition, the full $5.25 Harbor Tunnel Toll is entered into the meter for taxi trips leaving the airport via either the Sumner Tunnel or the Ted Williams Tunnel. The combined fee/toll amount ($7.50) is displayed on the right side of the taximeter and is automatically added to the metered fare (shown on the left side of the taxi meter) when the taxi has reached the passenger's destination and the meter is stopped. Taxi trips within a 20-mile radius of Boston City Hall (Meter Zone) are charged by running the taximeter. Taxi drivers will quote fare amounts from the Official Boston Police Department Flat-Rate Handbook to destinations outside the 20-mile radius.[165] Additionally, the city of Boston allows its taxis to collect half ($2.75) the Harbor Tunnel Toll on trips to Logan Airport. No airport fee is collected on taxi trips to the airport. As of April 2009, all Boston taxicabs accept fare payment by credit or debit card. The passenger is walked through a series of steps displayed on a touch-screen in the rear passenger compartment of the taxi. Upon request, a meter-generated receipt will be issued.

Cell phone lot

Logan International Airport offers a 30-minute cell phone waiting lot area at the intersection of Hotel Drive and Service Road, which is complimentary and five minutes from all terminals by car. This convenience service exists to reduce congestion and pollution problems.

Rental car center

A 120,000 sq ft (11,000 m2) $310 million rental car center opened on September 24, 2013 consolidating all rental car companies into one shared building. Advantage, Alamo, Avis, Budget, Dollar, Enterprise, E-Z Rent-A-Car, Hertz, National and Thrifty rental car companies operate out of the new facility which has 3,200 parking spaces across four levels. Access to the new facility is done through a new unified bus system consisting of 28 fuel efficient clean hybrid buses operated by Massport which provides service between all the terminals and the rental car center.[166]

Other facilities

Currently, major air cargo companies such as British Airways World Cargo, Lufthansa Cargo, Cathay Pacific Cargo, Martinair Cargo, China Airlines Cargo, EVA Air Cargo and many more cargo carriers have cargo offices on Airport property.[167] Also, American Airlines, Delta and JetBlue have maintenance hangars at the airport, all located adjacent to the office building near Terminal E and the North Cargo Terminal.[168] Delta TechOps is Delta Air Lines primary maintenance, repair and overhaul arm.

Also located on the property is the Amelia Earhart General Aviation Terminal which is located near Runway 14/32 and next to the Massport Fire Rescue headquarters. The terminal was built in 1980 and dedicated to former Boston resident Earhart in 1984.[169] Until 2006, American Eagle flights flew out of the terminal when all flights were consolidated in the former B22-29 gates in Pier A, the north building of Terminal B. Passengers had to take a shuttle bus from Terminal B to the Earhart Terminal.[170][171] The terminal currently sits mostly unused.

Terminal C is home to the airport's chapel, Our Lady of the Airways, which is considered the first airport chapel in the United States. The chapel was originally Catholic, but is now non-denominational.[69][70] The chapel has existed in two incarnations. The chapel opened in 1951.[71]

Accidents and incidents

Accidents
  • On October 4, 1960, Eastern Air Lines Flight 375 crashed into the sea while attempting to take off from Logan Airport. 62 people died and 10 people survived, incurring serious injuries.[172]
  • On November 15, 1961, A Vickers Viscount N6592C of Northeast Airlines was written off when it collided with a Douglas DC-6 N8228H of National Airlines after landing at Logan International Airport. The DC-6 had started to take-off without receiving clearance to do so.[173][174]
  • On July 31, 1973, Delta Air Lines Flight 723, a McDonnell Douglas DC-9, crashed into the seawall, causing the deaths of all 83 passengers and 6 crew members on board. One of the passengers initially survived the accident but later died in a hospital.[175]
  • On November 3, 1973, Pan Am Flight 160, a Boeing 707-321C cargo aircraft, crashed on approach to Boston-Logan. Smoke in the cockpit caused the pilots to lose control. Three people died in the accident.[176]
  • On January 23, 1982, World Airways Flight 30 from Newark to Boston made a non-precision instrument approach to runway 15R and touched down 2,800 feet (850 m) past the displaced threshold on an icy runway. When the crew sensed that the DC-10-30-CF couldn't be stopped on the remaining runway, they steered the DC-10 off the side of the runway to avoid the approach light pier, and slid into the shallow water of Boston Harbor. The nose section separated as the DC-10 came to rest 250 feet (76 m) past the runway end, 110 feet (34 m) left of the extended centerline. Two passengers (a father and son) were never found and are presumed to have been swept out to sea.[177]
Incidents
  • On October 2, 1954, a Massachusetts Air National Guard F94 Starfire experienced engine failure and crashed near Logan Airport. Its pilot, First Lieutenant James O. Conway sacrificed his life by veering the plane into an embankment on Bayswater Street in East Boston. A memorial was placed nearby.[178]
  • On July 2, 1976, an unoccupied Eastern Airlines L-188 Electra parked at Boston Logan Airport was destroyed by a bomb planted in the landing gear compartment. No one was injured.[179]
  • The two aircraft hijacked in the September 11, 2001 attacks that were flown into, and ultimately destroyed the twin towers of the World Trade Center American Airlines Flight 11 and United Airlines Flight 175 originated at Logan. American flags now fly over gates B32 and C19, the respective gates that the two planes pushed back from.
  • On June 9, 2005, US Airways Flight 1170 and Aer Lingus Flight 132 narrowly avoided collision when they were cleared for takeoff nearly simultaneously on intersecting runways by two different controllers. The crew of the US Airways flight spotted the oncoming Aer Lingus jet and avoided a collision by keeping their own aircraft on the runway past their normal rotation point, allowing the Aer Lingus flight to pass over them. Both flights lifted off safely and continued to their destinations without further incident.
  • On January 7, 2013, ground crew workers noticed smoke coming out from the battery compartment in a parked Japan Airlines Boeing 787 Dreamliner at the gate.[180] This fire was caused by overcharged lithium-ion batteries, eventually leading to the grounding of the worldwide Boeing 787 fleet[181] and subsequent redesign of the battery systems.[182]

Alternate airports

The two historically known alternative airports to Logan are both located outside the Commonwealth of Massachusetts: ManchesterBoston Regional Airport in Manchester, New Hampshire, located approximately 53 statute miles (85 km) north-northwest of Logan, which converts to an average drive time of 62 minutes via I-90 and I-93; and T. F. Green Airport in Warwick, Rhode Island, located 60 statute miles (97 km) south-southwest of Logan, averaging 76 minutes from Logan via I-90, I-93 and I-95, or a 100-minute ride via the Silver Line SL1 bus to South Station and then the Providence/Stoughton Line commuter rail to T. F. Green Airport station.[183] Massport does not operate these facilities.

Worcester Regional Airport in Worcester, which is also operated by Massport, also serves as an alternative to Logan, albeit known more recently as such. Currently, JetBlue Airways and Rectrix Shuttle are the only commercial airlines providing service to Worcester, though American Airlines will begin service on October, 4 2018, and Delta Air Lines intends to begin service in August 2019.[184] In late 2017, the airport finished construction on a Category IIIb Landing System that will allow for arrivals and departures in virtually all weather conditions. The increased reliability, which has been the main concern for airlines operating at the notoriously foggy airport over the years, is expected to draw additional service. The airport is located 47 statute miles (76 km) due west of Logan, primarily accessed via Interstates I-90 and I-290.

See also

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External links

Media related to Logan International Airport at Wikimedia Commons


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