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Airport Chicago (USA) - O'Hare

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Chicago O'Hare International Airport
Summary
Airport type Public
Owner City of Chicago
Operator Chicago Department of Aviation
Serves Chicago
Location Chicago, Illinois, U.S.
Opened February 1944 (1944-02)[1]
Hub for
Focus city for
Elevation AMSL 668 ft / 204 m
Coordinates 41°5843N 87°5417W / 41.97861°N 87.90472°W / 41.97861; -87.90472Coordinates: 41°5843N 87°5417W / 41.97861°N 87.90472°W / 41.97861; -87.90472
Website www.flychicago.com/ohare
Map
ORD
Location of airport in Chicago
ORD
ORD (Illinois)
ORD
ORD (the US)
ORD
ORD (North America)
Runways
Direction Length Surface
ft m
4L/22R 7,500 2,286 Asphalt
4R/22L 8,075 2,461 Asphalt
9L/27R 7,500 2,286 Concrete
9R/27L 7,967 2,428 Asphalt/Concrete
10R/28L 7,500 2,286 Concrete
10C/28C 10,801 3,292 Concrete
10L/28R 13,000 3,962 Asphalt/Concrete
Helipads
Number Length Surface
ft m
H1 200 61 Concrete
Statistics (2017)
Passenger volume 79,828,183
Aircraft movements 867,049
Cargo (metric tonnes) 1.9 million
Economic impact $39 billion
Sources: FAA[4] and airport's website.[5]

O'Hare International Airport (IATA: ORD, ICAO: KORD, FAA LID: ORD), usually referred to as O'Hare Airport, Chicago O'Hare, or simply O'Hare, is an international airport located on the far Northwest Side of Chicago, Illinois, 14 miles (23 km) northwest of the Loop business district, operated by the Chicago Department of Aviation[6] and covering 7,627 acres (3,087 ha).[4] O'Hare has direct flights to 217 destinations in North America, South America, Asia, Africa, and Europe.[7][8]

Established to be the successor to Chicagos busiest square mile in the world Midway Airport, OHare began as an airfield serving a Douglas manufacturing plant for C-54 military transports during World War II. It was named for Edward "Butch" O'Hare, the U.S. Navy's first Medal of Honor recipient during the war.[9] Later, at the height of the Cold War, O'Hare served as an active fighter base for the Air Force.[10]

As the first major airport planned post-war, OHare's innovative design pioneered concepts such as concourses, direct highway access to the terminal, and underground refueling systems.[11] It became famous as the first Worlds Busiest Airport of the jet age, holding that distinction from 1963 to 1998; today, it is the world's sixth-busiest airport, serving 79.8 million passengers in 2017.

O'Hare is unusual in that it serves a major hub for more than one of the three U.S. mainline carriers; it is United's largest hub in both passengers and flights, while it is American's third-largest hub.[12][13] It is also a focus city for Frontier Airlines and Spirit Airlines.[2][3]

Today, Terminals 2 and 3 remain of the original design, but OHare has been modernizing the airfield since 2005 and is beginning an expansion of passenger facilities that will remake it as North Americas first airport built around airline alliances.[14][15]

History

Establishment and defense efforts

Not long after the opening of Midway Airport in 1926, the City of Chicago realized that additional airport capacity would be needed in the future. The city government investigated various potential airport sites during the 1930s, but made little progress prior to America's entry into World War II.[9]

O'Hare's place in aviation began with a manufacturing plant for Douglas C-54s during WWII. The site was then known as Orchard Place, and had previously been a small German farming community. The 2,000,000 square feet (190,000 m2) plant, located in the northeast corner of what is now the airport property, needed easy access to the workforce of the nation's then second-largest city, as well as its extensive railroad infrastructure and location far from enemy threat. Some 655 C-54s were built at the plant. The attached airfield, from which the completed planes were flown out, was known simply as Douglas Airport; initially, it had four 5,500-foot (1,700 m) runways.[9] Less known is the fact that it was the location of the Army Air Forces 803rd Special Depot, a unit charged with storing many captured enemy aircraft. A few representatives of this collection would eventually be transferred to the Smithsonian Institution's National Air and Space Museum.[16][17]

Douglas Company's contract ended in 1945 and, though consideration was given to building commercial aircraft at Orchard, the company ultimately chose to concentrate commercial production at its original headquarters in Santa Monica, CA.[9] With the departure of Douglas, the complex took the name of Orchard Field Airport, and was assigned the IATA code ORD.[18]

The United States Air Force used the field extensively during the Korean War, at which time there was still no scheduled commercial service at the airport. Although not its primary base in the area, the Air Force used O'Hare as an active fighter base; it was home to the 62nd Fighter-Interceptor Squadron flying F-86 Sabres from 1950 to 1959.[10] By 1960, the need for O'Hare as an active duty fighter base was diminishing, just as commercial business was picking up at the airport. The Air Force removed active-duty units from O'Hare and turned the station over to Continental Air Command, enabling them to base reserve and Air National Guard units there.[19] As a result of a 1993 agreement between the City and the Department of Defense, the reserve based was closed on April 1, 1997, ending its career as the home of the 928th Airlift Wing. At that time, the 357 acre (144 ha) site came under the ownership of the Chicago Department of Aviation.[20]

Commercial development

In 1945, Chicago mayor Edward Kelly established a formal board to choose the site of a new facility to meet future aviation demands. After considering various proposals, the board decided upon the Orchard Field site, and acquired most of the federal government property in March 1946. The military retained a relatively small parcel of property on the site, and the rights to use 25% of the airfield's operating capacity for free.[9]

Ralph H. Burke, an engineer previously responsible for designing Meigs Field, devised an airport master plan based on the pioneering idea of what he called "split finger terminals", allowing a terminal building to be attached to "airline wings" (concourses), each providing space for gates and planes. (Pre-war airport designs had favored ever-larger single terminals, exemplified by Berlin's Tempelhof.) Other innovations Burke called for included underground refueling, direct highway access to the front of terminals, and direct rail access, all of which are readily visible at the airport today. His 1947 preliminary plan also called for the 10 runways to be arranged tangentially at different headings so that no runway would cross another.[21] That aspect of the plan was changed during the 1950s, as forthcoming jet aircraft would require longer runways, and Burke ultimately adopted a combination of overlapping runways in three different orientations.[22] O'Hare was also the first airport to adapt slip form paving, developed for the nation's new Interstate highway system, for seamless concrete runways.

In 1949, the City renamed the facility O'Hare Field to honor Edward "Butch" O'Hare, the U.S. Navy's first flying ace and Medal of Honor recipient in World War II.[23] Its IATA code (ORD) remained unchanged, however, resulting in O'Hare's being one of the few IATA codes bearing no connection to the airport's name or metropolitan area.[18]

Scheduled passenger service began in 1955,[24] but growth was slow at first. Although Chicago had invested over $25 million in O'Hare, Midway remained the world's busiest airport and airlines were reluctant to move until highway access and other improvements were completed.[25] The April 1957 Official Airline Guide shows only 36 weekday departures from the airport, while Midway coped with 414. Improvements began to attract the airlines: O'Hare's first dedicated international terminal opened in August 1958, and by April 1959 the airport had expanded to 7,200 acres (2,900 ha) with new hangars, terminals, parking and other facilities. The expressway link to downtown Chicago, then known as the Northwest Expressway, was completed in 1960.[24] And new Terminals 2 and 3, designed by C. F. Murphy and Associates, opened on January 1, 1962.[26]

However, the biggest factor driving the airlines to O'Hare from Midway was the emergence of commercial jet transports; one-square-mile Midway did not have the space for the lengthy runways the new planes required.[27] While airlines had initially been reluctant to move to O'Hare, they were equally unwilling to split operations between the two airports: in July 1962 the last fixed-wing scheduled airline flight in Chicago moved from Midway to O'Hare. The arrival of Midway's traffic quickly made O'Hare the world's busiest airport, serving 10 million passengers annually. Within two years that number would double, with Chicagoans proudly boasting that more people passed through O'Hare in 12 months than Ellis Island had processed in its entire existence. O'Hare remained the world's busiest airport until 1998.

American Airlines,[28] United Airlines[29] and Trans World Airlines had routes to the West Coast, Northeast and Midwest. TWA flew to Europe nonstop from O'Hare starting in 1958.[30] Northwest Orient Airlines flew to the Northeast, Pacific Northwest, Florida and Hawaii, and via Alaska to Japan and the Far East;[31] their 747 to Tokyo was O'Hare's first nonstop to Asia, in 1977. Delta Air Lines served the Southeast and Midwest.[32]

On January 17, 1980, the airport's weather station became the official point for Chicago's weather observations and records by the National Weather Service, replacing Midway.[33]

Post-deregulation developments and hubs

In the 1980s, after passage of US airline deregulation, the first major change at O'Hare occurred when TWA decamped Chicago for St. Louis as its main mid-continent hub.[34] Although TWA had a large hangar complex at O'Hare and had initiated non-stop service to Europe from Chicago using 707s in 1958, by the time of deregulation its operation was losing $25 million a year under intense competition from United and American.[35] Northwest likewise ceded O'Hare to the competition and shifted to a Minneapolis and Detroit-centered network by the early 1990s following its acquisition of Republic Airlines in 1986.[36] Delta maintained a Chicago hub for some time, even commissioning a new Concourse L in 1983.[37] Ultimately, Delta found competing from an inferior position at O'Hare too expensive and closed its Chicago hub in the 1990s, concentrating its upper Midwest operations at Cincinnati.

The dominant hubs established at O'Hare in the 1980s by United and American continue to operate today. United developed a new two-concourse Terminal 1 (dubbed The Terminal for Tomorrow), designed by Helmut Jahn. It was built between 1985 and 1987 on the site of the original Terminal 1; the structure, which includes 50 gates, is best known for its curved glass forms and the connecting underground passage between Concourses B and C.[38] American renovated and expanded its existing facilities in Terminal 3 from 1987 to 1990; these renovations feature a flag-lined entrance hall to Concourses H/K.[39][39]

The demolition of the original Terminal 1 in 1984 to make way for Jahn's design forced a "temporary" relocation of international flights into facilities called Terminal 4 on the ground floor of the airport's central parking garage. International passengers were then bused to and from their aircraft. Relocation finally ended with the completion of the 21-gate International Terminal in 1993 (now called Terminal 5); it contains all customs facilities. Its location, on the site of the original cargo area and east of the terminal core, necessitated the construction of the Airport Transit System people-mover, which connected the terminal core with the new terminal as well as remote rental and parking lots.[37]

The large consolidating mergers in the airline industry from 2008-2014 left O'Hare's domestic operations simplified: the airport found itself primarily with United mainline in Terminal 1, United Express, Air Canada, and Delta in Terminal 2, and American and smaller carriers in Terminal 3.

Field modernization and reconfiguration

O'Hare's high volume and crowded schedule, along with the vagaries of weather in the upper Midwest, frequently led to major delays; its delays could affect airlines system-wide, causing issues for air travel across North America. Official reports at the end of the 1990s ranked O'Hare as one of the worst performing airports in the United States, based on the percentage of delayed flights.[40] The situation was exacerbated by a practice known as banking, in which regional and mainline flights arrive within several narrow windows during each day (facilitating quick transfers but creating temporary congestion) and then made worse by bitter competition between United and American, who combined for over 86% of all operations but initially refused to cooperate to ease the situation. In 2004, facing the imposition of flight limits at O'Hare by the FAA, United and American agreed to modify their flight schedules to help reduce congestion caused by clustered arrivals and departures, mainly by adjusting the schedules of their regional carriers.[41]

While reducing the practice of banking helped, the reality was that the airfield had remained unchanged since the addition of its last new runway (4R/22L) in 1971.[42] The three pairs of runways at different angles were meant to allow takeoffs into the wind, but they came at a cost: the various intersecting runways were both dangerous and inefficient. However, by the 1990s the power of modern commercial aircraft made into-the-wind takeoffs unnecessary. In 2001, the Chicago Department of Aviation committed to a O'Hare Modernization Plan (OMP); initially estimated at $6.6 billion, the OMP was to be paid by bonds issued against the increase in the passenger facility charge enacted that year as well as federal airport improvement funds.[43]

The modernization plan was approved by the FAA in October 2005 and involved a complete reconfiguration of the airfield, which had to be executed without affecting ongoing operations. It included the construction of four new runways, the lengthening of two existing runways, and the decommissioning of two existing runways in order to give the airport six parallel runways and two crosswind runways in a configuration similar to that used at other large hub airports in Atlanta, Dallas/Fort Worth, and Los Angeles.[14] Effectively, it was the construction of two new airfields in the midst of the existing one while it continued to operate. This was a complete redesign of Burke's basic airfield structure; O'Hare had functioned in a circular manner, with the terminal complex in the center and runways effectively in a triangle around it.[9] Now, O'Hare would be organized into three sections, north to south: the North Airfield, containing three east-west and one crosswind runway and a new cargo area; the terminal complex and ground transportation access in the center; and the South Airfield, again containing three east-west and one crosswind runway and a large cargo area.

The OMP was the subject of lengthy legal battles, both with suburbs who feared the new layout's noise implications as well as survivors of persons interred in a cemetery the city proposed to relocate; some of the cases were not resolved until 2011.[14] These, plus the reduction in traffic as a result of the 2008 financial crisis, delayed the OMP's completion; construction of the sixth and final parallel runway (9C/27C)[44] began in 2017. Its completion in 2020, along with an extension of runway 9R/27L to be completed in 2021, will conclude the OMP.[45]

Although construction continues, peak capacity (number of operations/hour) has already increased by 50% and total (all weather) system delays reduced by 57%;[46] after completion of the first two phases of the OMP, on-time arrivals improved from 67.6% to 80.8%.[47] By 2017, O'Hare ranked 14th in on-time performance of the top 30 U.S. airports.[48] Costs of the O'Hare Modernization Plan had risen, by 2015, beyond $8 billion.[49]

Future

On March 28, 2018, the Chicago City Council gave approval to new leases with the airlines, which also contained an agreement to a Terminal Area Plan dubbed O'Hare 21.[15] It marks the first comprehensive redevelopment and expansion of the terminal core in O'Hare's history. The improvements are intended to enable same-terminal transfers between international and domestic flights, enable faster connections, improve facilities and technology for TSA and customs inspections, and modernize and expand landside amenities. The most unusual aspect of the plan is the reorganization of the airport into a Global Alliance Hub, the first in North America; airside connections and layout will be optimized around airline alliances. This will be made possible by the construction of the OHare Global Terminal where Terminal 2 currently stands. The Global Terminal and two new satellite concourses will allow for expansion for both American's and United's international operations as well as easy interchange with their various international partners through Oneworld (American) or Star Alliance (United), eliminating the need to exit the secured airside, ride the ATS, and re-clear security at Terminal 5. Delta and its SkyTeam partners, as well as all non-affiliated carriers, will relocate to Terminal 5.

The plan is set to add 3,100,000-square-foot (290,000 m2) to the airport's terminals, a new customs processing center in the Global Terminal, 25% more ramp space at gates to accommodate larger aircraft, reconstruction of gates and concourses (new concourses will be a minimum of 120 feet (37 m) wide), and increase the gate count from 185 to 235.[50] Since construction cannot interfere with ongoing operations at the airport, it is scheduled to take place in stages, with the first step (scheduled to begin 2019) being to dig the tunnel that will connect the terminal core with two new satellite concourses.[51] Demolition of Terminal 2 and the subsequent construction of the Global Terminal can only proceed after the completion of the two new satellite concourses, which will provide the gates lost by the demolition of Terminal 2. In addition, construction continues on a nine-gate extension of Terminal 5, to open in 2021. A separate "stinger" extension of Concourse L, with five new American regional gates, opened to service in April, 2018.[52]

By terms of the agreement between the airlines and the City, total costs of $8.7 billion (2018 est.) for O'Hare 21 are to be borne by bonds issued by the City and retired through airport usage fees paid by the airlines. The O'Hare 21 project is scheduled for completion in 2026.

Infrastructure

Runways

O'Hare is organized into two parallel east-west runways (9L/27R and 9R/27L) on the north side of the airfield (and forthcoming 9C/27C scheduled for completion in 2020), and three parallel east-west runways (10L/28R, 10C/28C, and 10R/28L) on the south side of the airfield. In addition, there are two parallel crosswind runways oriented northeast/southwest (4R/22L, 4L/22R), one on each side of the airfield. Neither can be used without major disruption to the east-west runways; in fact, 4L/22R crosses 9R/27L and the path of forthcoming 9C/27C, making the chances of the crosswind runways being used, at any given time, very low.[53] (Their role is emergency relief and overnight use.) Each side of the airfield has its own ground control tower.

The last of the runways to close under the OMP, originally 14R/32L, was removed from service March 29, 2018, and the FAA Airport Diagram now designates it as taxiway SS.[54] Ironically, it had been the first new runway added by the city to the old Douglas Field layout, and was lengthened and rebuilt with concrete in 1960 to became O'Hare's first jet runway.[9]

O'Hare has a voluntary nighttime (22000700) noise abatement program.[55]

ATS, rental lots and remote parking

Passengers within the airport complex are normally able to travel via the free 2.5 mi (4 km)-long automated Airport Transit System (ATS), connecting all four terminals landside and the rental and remote parking lots. However, as part of a larger project, the ATS is undergoing a $310 million modernization and expansion that includes replacing the existing 15-car fleet with 36 new Bombardier vehicles,[56] upgrading the previous infrastructure, and extending the line 2,000 feet (610 m)[57] to the new consolidated rental car/parking facility across Mannheim Road where lot F was prior to construction. Currently, the modernization means the ATS is shut down from 0500 Monday through 0500 Saturday (with some holiday exceptions), with free shuttle buses providing service when the ATS is not running.[58]

The ATS extension will end at a new integrated multi-modal transit center, a facility that will significantly alter ground access to O'Hare. Rental customers will proceed to the new transit/rental center via the ATS, as will customers seeking shuttle transportation to off-airport hotels or parking; travelers accessing long-term parking will also take the ATS. All shuttle bus service to the terminals will end with the opening of the integrated transit center, eliminating 1.3 million vehicle trips a year into the terminal core. The center, scheduled for completion in late 2018, is a five-level, 2,500,000-square-foot (230,000 m2) structure containing 4,200 spaces for rental cars and offices for all airport-franchised ("on-airport") rental car firms, as well as 2,676 additional public parking spaces.[59] The center will also connect the ATS and the O'Hare Metra station; currently, a shuttle bus is necessary to transport passengers between the ATS and Metra. The intermodal transit center and the related ATS extension are being paid for by an $8/day airport-imposed fee on car rentals at O'Hare.

Hotel

The Hilton Chicago O'Hare is between the terminal core and parking garage and is currently the only hotel on airport property. It is owned by the Chicago Department of Aviation and operated under an agreement with Hilton Hotels.

Environmental efforts

In 2011, O'Hare became the first major airport to build an apiary on its property; every summer, it hosts as many as 75 hives and a million bees. The bees are maintained by 30 to 40 ex-offenders with little to no work experience and few marketable skills from the North Lawndale community. They are taught beekeeping but also benefit from the bees' labor, turning it into bottled fresh honey, soaps, lip balms, candles and moisturizers marketed under the beelove product line; products are sold at stores and used by restaurants throughout both Chicago airports.[60] More than 500 persons have completed the program, transferring to jobs in manufacturing, food processing, customer service, and hospitality; the repeat-offender rate is reported to be less than 10%.[61]

O'Hare has used livestock, primarily goats, since 2013 to control vegetation in harder-to-reach areas or on steeper banks as along Willow-Higgins Creek on the airport property. In the summer of 2017, more than 100 goats controlled buckthorn, garlic mustard, ragweed and various other invasive species.[62] The livestock assist not only with vegetation removal and control, but also reduce hiding and nesting places for birds that may interfere with safe aircraft operations, and all without food expense or environmental damage.[63]

Other facilities

The USO offers two facilities: one open 24 hours and located before security in Terminal 2, and an additional site behind security in Terminal 3, open 06:00-22:30 daily. Each offers meals, refreshments, TV and quiet rooms, and internet access. Active duty military personnel and their families, as well as new recruits going to Recruit Training Command, are welcome.[65]

The large Postal Service processing facility at O'Hare is located at the far south end of the airfield along Irving Park Road. Being on secured airfield property, it is not open to the public. USPS drop locations are provided in Terminals 1, 3 and 5.

Terminals

O'Hare has four numbered passenger terminals with nine lettered concourses and a total of 191 gates.

With the exception of flights from destinations with U.S. Customs and Border Protection preclearance, all inbound international flights arrive at Terminal 5, as the other terminals do not have customs screening facilities. Several carriers, such as American, Iberia, Lufthansa, and United, have outbound international flights departing from Terminals 1 and 3. This requires that the aircraft arrive and discharge passengers at Terminal 5, after which the empty plane is towed to another terminal for boarding. This is to expedite connections for passengers transferring from domestic flights to those outbound international flights; while Terminals 1, 2, and 3 all allow airside connections, Terminal 5 is separated from the other terminals by a set of taxiways that cross over the airport's access road, requiring passengers to exit security, ride the Airport Transit System, and then re-clear security before boarding.

Terminal 1

Terminal 1 is used for United Airlines flights, including all mainline flights and some United Express operations, as well as departures for Star Alliance partners Lufthansa (Except for flight LH437 to Munich which departs from Terminal 5) (B16-B17) and All Nippon Airways (C10). Terminal 1 has 50 gates on two concourses:

  • Concourse B 22 gates
  • Concourse C 28 gates

Concourses B and C are linear concourses located in separate buildings parallel to each other. Concourse B is adjacent to the airport roadway and houses passenger check-in, baggage claim, and security screenings on its landside and aircraft gates on its airside. Concourse C is a satellite terminal with gates on all sides, in the middle of the ramp, and is connected to Concourse B via an underground pedestrian tunnel under the ramp. The tunnel originates between gates B8 and B9 in Concourse B, and ends on Concourse C between gates C17 and C19. The tunnel is illuminated with a neon installation titled Sky's the Limit (1987) by Canadian artist Michael Hayden, which plays an airy and very slow-tempo version of Rhapsody in Blue.

United operates three United Clubs in Terminal 1: one on Concourse B near gate B6, one located near gate B16, and one on Concourse C near gate C16. There is also a United First International Lounge and United Arrivals Suite in Concourse C near gate C18. Additionally, there is a United Polaris Lounge near gate C18.[66]

Terminal 2

Terminal 2 houses Air Canada, Delta and Delta Connection domestic flights, and most United Express operations (although most check-ins for United flights take place in Terminal 1). Terminal 2 has 43 gates on two concourses.

  • Concourse E 17 gates
  • Concourse F 24 gates

There is a United Club in Concourse F near gate F8, and a Delta Sky Club in Concourse E near gate E6. US Airways operated out of Terminal 2 until it moved operations to Terminal 3 in 2014 to join its merger partner American.

Terminal 3

Terminal 3 houses all American flights, as well as departures for select Oneworld carriers including Iberia and Japan Airlines, plus unaffiliated low-cost carriers. Terminal 3 currently has 80 gates on four concourses:

  • Concourse G 24 gates
  • Concourse H 18 gates
  • Concourse K 16 gates
  • Concourse L 22 gates

Concourses G and L house most American Eagle operations, while Concourses H and K house American's mainline operations. American's oneworld partners Japan Airlines and Iberia depart from K19 and non-affiliated Alaska Airlines operates from H4. Concourse L is also used for flights operated by Air Choice One,[67] JetBlue, Cape Air[68] and Spirit; the so-called "stinger" extension of Concourse L, which opened in April 2018, provides five additional American Eagle gates.

The airline has three Admiral's Clubs in Terminal 3 and one Flagship Lounge. The main Club and Flagship Lounge is located in the crosswalk between concourses H and K at gates H6/K6; the other Admiral's Clubs are located at gates L1 and G8.[69]

Terminal 5

Terminal 5 houses all of O'Hare's international arrivals (excluding flights with Air Canada, American and United from destinations with U.S. border preclearance). Other destinations with preclearance, including flights operated by Aer Lingus and Etihad Airways, arrive at Terminal 5 but are treated as domestic arrivals. With the exception of select Star Alliance and Oneworld carriers that board from Terminal 1 or Terminal 3 respectively, all non-U.S. carriers except Air Canada depart from Terminal 5.

In 2014, Terminal 5 underwent a $26 million amenities improvement project which belatedly adapted the terminal to a post-September 11 layout; the project added dining and retail post-security, including many locally-owned restaurants.[70] In May 2018, Frontier Airlines relocated operations to Terminal 5, the first domestic airline to do so.[71]

Terminal 5 has 21 gates on one concourse.

  • Concourse M 21 gates

Terminal 5 has several airline lounges, including the Air France - KLM Lounge, British Airways First Class Galleries and Business Class Terraces Lounges, Korean Air Lounge, Scandinavian Airlines Lounge, Swissport Lounge, and Swiss International Air Lines First Class Lounge and Business Class Lounge. The airport's U.S. Customs and Border Protection facility is located at the arrival (lower) level.

Gate M11a is the only gate at O'Hare currently equipped to handle an Airbus A380. In May 2018, British Airways began service with the A380 on one of its two daily flights to Heathrow Airport, beginning the first scheduled A380 service (although Lufthansa and Emirates had landed A380s in demonstrations earlier).[72]

Airlines and destinations

Passenger
AirlinesDestinationsRefs
Aer Lingus Dublin [73]
Aeroméxico Guadalajara, Mexico City [74]
Air Canada TorontoPearson
Seasonal: MontréalTrudeau
[75]
Air Canada Express MontréalTrudeau, Vancouver [75]
Air Choice One Burlington (IA), Ironwood, Mason City [76]
Air France ParisCharles de Gaulle [77]
Air India Delhi [78]
Air New Zealand Auckland (begins November 30, 2018)[79] [80]
Alaska Airlines Anchorage, Los Angeles, Portland (OR), San Francisco, Seattle/Tacoma [81]
Alitalia Seasonal: RomeFiumicino [82]
All Nippon Airways TokyoHaneda, Tokyo-Narita [83]
American Airlines Albuquerque, Atlanta, Austin, Baltimore, BeijingCapital (ends October 20, 2018),[84] Boston, Cancún, Charlotte, Dallas/Fort Worth, Denver, Detroit, El Paso, Fort Lauderdale, Fort Myers, Hartford, Kansas City, Las Vegas, LondonHeathrow, Los Angeles, Miami, Minneapolis/St. Paul, Nashville, New Orleans, New YorkJFK, New YorkLaGuardia, Newark, Orange County (CA), Orlando, Philadelphia, PhoenixSky Harbor, Pittsburgh, Portland (OR), Raleigh/Durham, Reno/Tahoe, Sacramento, St. Louis, Salt Lake City, San Antonio, San Diego, San Francisco, San Jose (CA), San Juan, Seattle/Tacoma, ShanghaiPudong, Tampa, TokyoNarita, Tucson, Tulsa, Vancouver, WashingtonNational, West Palm Beach
Seasonal: Aruba (begins December 22, 2018),[84] Barcelona, Bozeman, Cozumel, Dublin, Eagle/Vail, Grand Cayman (begins December 22, 2018),[84] Guatemala City, Honolulu (resumes December 19, 2018),[84] HoustonIntercontinental, Indianapolis, Jackson Hole, Manchester (UK), Montego Bay, Nassau (begins December 22, 2018),[84] Palm Springs, ParisCharles de Gaulle, Providenciales (begins December 22, 2018),[84] Puerto Vallarta, Punta Cana, RomeFiumicino, San José del Cabo, Venice
[85]
American Eagle Akron/Canton, Albany, Albuquerque, Appleton, Atlanta, Austin, Baltimore, Bangor, Birmingham (AL), Bismarck, Bloomington/Normal, Boise, Buffalo, Cedar Rapids/Iowa City, Champaign/Urbana, Charlottesville, Chattanooga, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Colorado Springs, Columbia (MO), ColumbusGlenn, Dayton, Des Moines, Detroit, Dubuque, El Paso, Evansville, Fargo, Fayetteville/Bentonville, Flint, Fort Wayne, Grand Rapids, Green Bay, Greensboro, Greenville/Spartanburg, Harrisburg, Hartford, Hattiesburg/Laurel, HoustonIntercontinental, Huntsville, Indianapolis, Jacksonville (FL), Kalamazoo, Kansas City, Knoxville, La Crosse, Lansing, Lexington, Little Rock, Louisville, Madison, Manhattan (KS), Marquette, Memphis, Meridian (MS), Milwaukee, Minneapolis/St. Paul, Moline/Quad Cities, MontréalTrudeau, Mosinee, Nashville, New Orleans, Newark, Norfolk, Oklahoma City, Omaha, Peoria, Pittsburgh, Providence, Raleigh/Durham, Rapid City, Richmond, Rochester (MN), Rochester (NY), St. Louis, Salt Lake City, San Antonio, Sioux City, Sioux Falls, Springfield/Branson, Syracuse, Toledo, TorontoPearson, Traverse City, Tulsa, Tucson, WashingtonNational, Waterloo (IA), White Plains, Wichita, Wilkes-Barre
Seasonal: Aspen, Bozeman, Burlington (VT), Calgary, Charleston (SC), Denver, Hayden/Steamboat Springs, Missoula, Montrose, Myrtle Beach, Portland (ME), Sarasota (begins December 19, 2018),[86] Savannah, Wilmington (NC)
[85]
Asiana Airlines SeoulIncheon [87]
Austrian Airlines Vienna [88]
Avianca Bogotá (begins November 17, 2018)[89] [90]
Avianca Costa Rica Guatemala City (begins October 29, 2018)[91] [90]
Avianca El Salvador San Salvador [90]
Bahamasair Nassau [92]
British Airways LondonHeathrow [93]
Cape Air Decatur [94]
Cathay Pacific Hong Kong [95]
Cayman Airways Seasonal: Grand Cayman [96]
China Eastern Airlines ShanghaiPudong [97]
Copa Airlines Panama City [98]
Delta Air Lines Atlanta, Detroit, Minneapolis/St. Paul, New YorkLaGuardia, Salt Lake City, Seattle/Tacoma [99]
Delta Connection Cincinnati, Detroit, Minneapolis/St. Paul, New YorkJFK, Raleigh/Durham (begins April 2, 2019),[100] Salt Lake City [99]
Emirates DubaiInternational [101]
Ethiopian Airlines Addis Ababa [102]
Etihad Airways Abu Dhabi [103]
EVA Air TaipeiTaoyuan [104]
Finnair Seasonal: Helsinki [105]
Frontier Airlines Cancún, Denver, El Paso, Las Vegas, Orlando, PhoenixSky Harbor, Punta Cana
Seasonal: Charleston (SC), Colorado Springs, Fort Myers, Jacksonville (FL), Long Island/Islip, Miami, Pensacola (FL), Puerto Vallarta, San José del Cabo, Syracuse (begins August 12, 2018), Tampa, Trenton
[106]
Hainan Airlines BeijingCapital [107]
Iberia Madrid [108]
Icelandair ReykjavíkKeflavík [109]
Interjet Guadalajara, Mexico City [110]
Japan Airlines Tokyo-Narita [111]
JetBlue Airways Boston, Fort Lauderdale, New YorkJFK [112]
KLM Amsterdam [113]
Korean Air SeoulIncheon [114]
LOT Polish Airlines Budapest, Kraków, WarsawChopin [115]
Lufthansa Frankfurt, Munich [116]
Norwegian Air Shuttle LondonGatwick [117]
Qatar Airways Doha [118]
Royal Jordanian AmmanQueen Alia [119]
Scandinavian Airlines Copenhagen, StockholmArlanda [120]
Spirit Airlines Atlanta, Baltimore, Cancún, Dallas/Fort Worth, Denver, Fort Lauderdale, Fort Myers, HoustonIntercontinental, Las Vegas, Los Angeles, New Orleans, New YorkLaGuardia, Orlando, San Diego, Tampa
Seasonal: Boston, Myrtle Beach, Oakland, PhoenixSky Harbor, Portland (OR), Seattle/Tacoma, West Palm Beach
[121]
Swiss International Air Lines Zürich [122]
Turkish Airlines IstanbulAtatürk [123]
United Airlines Albany, Amsterdam, Aruba, Atlanta, Austin, Baltimore, BeijingCapital, Belize City, Boston, Brussels, Buffalo, Calgary, Cancún, Charleston (SC), Charlotte, Cincinnati, Cleveland, ColumbusGlenn, Dallas/Fort Worth, Denver, Des Moines, Detroit, Duluth, Fort Lauderdale, Fort Myers, Frankfurt, Grand Rapids, Harrisburg, Hartford, Hong Kong, Honolulu, HoustonIntercontinental, Indianapolis, Kahului, Kansas City, Las Vegas, LondonHeathrow, Los Angeles, Madison, Memphis, Mexico City, Miami, Milwaukee, Minneapolis/St. Paul, Munich, Nashville, New Orleans, New YorkLaGuardia, Newark, Norfolk, Oklahoma City, Omaha, Orange County (CA), Orlando, ParisCharles de Gaulle, Philadelphia, PhoenixSky Harbor, Pittsburgh, Portland (OR), Raleigh/Durham, Richmond, Rochester (NY), Sacramento, Salt Lake City, San Antonio, San Diego, San Francisco, San Jose (CA), San Juan, São PauloGuarulhos, Seattle/Tacoma, ShanghaiPudong, Spokane, Syracuse, Tampa, Tokyo-Narita, TorontoPearson, Vancouver, WashingtonDulles, WashingtonNational, Wichita
Seasonal: Albuquerque, Anchorage, Bangor, Boise, Bozeman, Burlington (VT), Cozumel, Dublin, Edinburgh, Fairbanks, Grand Cayman, Ixtapa/Zihuatanejo, Jackson Hole, Jacksonville (FL), Liberia, Mazatlán (ends August 18, 2018),[124] Missoula, Montego Bay, Montrose, Myrtle Beach, Nassau, Palm Springs, Portland (ME), Providenciales, Puerto Vallarta, Punta Cana, Reno/Tahoe, RomeFiumicino, Sarasota, Saint LuciaHewanorra, St. Maarten, St. Thomas, San José del Cabo, San José de Costa Rica, Savannah, Traverse City, Vail/Eagle, West Palm Beach
[125]
United Express Akron/Canton, Albany, Albuquerque, Allentown, Appleton, Asheville, Aspen, Atlanta, Austin, Baltimore, Birmingham (AL), Bismarck, Boise, Boston, Buffalo, Burlington (VT), Calgary, Cape Girardeau, Cedar Rapids/Iowa City, Champaign/Urbana (ends September 5, 2018),[126] Charleston (SC), Charleston (WV), Charlotte, Charlottesville, Chattanooga, Cincinnati, Clarksburg (WV), Cleveland, Colorado Springs, Columbia (MO), Columbia (SC), ColumbusGlenn, Dallas/Fort Worth, Dayton, Des Moines, Detroit, Duluth, Eau Claire, El Paso, Erie, Evansville, Fargo, Fayetteville/Bentonville, Flint, Fort Wayne, Fresno, Grand Rapids, Green Bay, Greensboro, Greenville/Spartanburg, Harrisburg, Hartford, Houghton, HoustonIntercontinental, Huntsville, Indianapolis, Jackson (MS), Jackson Hole (WY), Jacksonville (FL), Kalamazoo, Kansas City, Knoxville, Lansing, León/Del Bajío (begins October 28, 2018),[127] Lewisburg (WV), Lexington, Lincoln, Little Rock, Louisville, Madison, Manchester (NH) (ends September 4, 2018),[128] Memphis, Milwaukee, Minneapolis/St. Paul, Mobile, Moline/Quad Cities, Monterrey, MontréalTrudeau, Mosinee, Muskegon, Nashville, New Orleans, New YorkLaGuardia, Newark, Norfolk, Oklahoma City, Omaha, Ottawa, Paducah, Peoria, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Portland (ME), Providence, Quincy, Raleigh/Durham, Rapid City, Richmond, Roanoke, Rochester (MN), Rochester (NY), St. Louis, Saginaw, Salina, Salt Lake City, San Antonio, Savannah, Shenandoah Valley, Sioux Falls, South Bend, Springfield (IL), Springfield/Branson, State College, Syracuse, TorontoPearson, Traverse City, Tucson, Tulsa, WashingtonDulles, WashingtonNational, West Palm Beach, White Plains, Wichita, WilkesBarre/Scranton, Wilmington (NC), Winnipeg
Seasonal: Bangor, Billings, Bozeman, Brownsville (begins November 3, 2018),[129] Cody, Great Falls, Gunnison/Crested Butte, Hayden/Steamboat Springs, Kalispell, Key West, Miami, Missoula, Montrose, Myrtle Beach, Nassau, Palm Springs, Pensacola, Québec City, Sarasota, Sun Valley
[125]
Vacation Express Seasonal Charter: Cancun, Cozumel, Freeport, Punta Cana [130]
VivaAerobus Seasonal: Cancún [131]
Volaris Guadalajara, Mexico City
Seasonal: Huatulco
[132]
WOW air ReykjavíkKeflavík [133]

Cargo

There are two main cargo areas at O'Hare that have warehouse, build-up/tear-down and aircraft parking facilities.

The Cargo Area (now the South Cargo Area) was relocated in the 1980s from the airport's first air cargo facilities, which were located east of the terminal core, where Terminal 5 now stands. Many of the structures in the new Cargo Area then had to be rebuilt, again, to allow for the OMP and specifically runway 10R/28L; as a result, what is now called the South Cargo Area is located between 10R/28L and 10C/28C. These facilities were established mainly by traditional airline-based air cargo; Air France Cargo, American, JAL Cargo, KLM, Lufthansa Cargo, Northwest and United all built purpose-built, freestanding cargo facilities,[134] although most of them now lease the space out to dedicated cargo firms. In addition, the area contains two separate facilities for shipper FedEx and one for UPS.[134]

The Northeast Cargo Area (NEC) is a conversion of the former military base (the Douglas plant area) and is at the northeast corner of the airport property adjacent to Bessie Coleman Drive. It is a new facility designed to increase O'Hare's cargo capacity by 50%. Two buildings currently make up the NEC: a 540,000 square feet (50,000 m2) building completed in 2016,[135] and a 240,000 square feet (22,000 m2) building that was completed in 2017.[136] A third structure, scheduled for completion in 2019, will complete the NEC with another 150,000 square feet (14,000 m2) of warehouse space.[137]

The combined capabilities of the cargo areas provide 2,000,000 square feet (190,000 m2) of airside cargo space, on four ramps, with parking for 40 wide-body freighters, matched with over 2,000,000 square feet (190,000 m2) of landside warehousing capability. O'Hare shipped over 1.9 million tonnes of cargo in 2017, third among major airports in the U.S. The Department of Aviation estimates the value of the yearly shipments at $200 billion.[138]

AirlinesDestinationsRefs
AeroUnion Mexico City
AirBridgeCargo Airlines Amsterdam, Dallas/Fort Worth, Frankfurt, HoustonIntercontinental, Luxembourg, MoscowDomodedovo [139]
Air China Cargo Anchorage, BeijingCapital, Frankfurt, New YorkJFK, ShanghaiPudong, Tianjin
Air France Cargo Dublin, New YorkJFK, ParisCharles de Gaulle, Prestwick
Asiana Cargo Anchorage, Atlanta, New YorkJFK, SeoulIncheon, Seattle/Tacoma
ASL Airlines Belgium Liège
Atlas Air Anchorage, Miami, SeoulIncheon
Cargolux Anchorage, Atlanta, Dallas/Fort Worth, Hong Kong, Indianapolis, Los Angeles, Luxembourg, New YorkJFK, Zhengzhou
Cathay Pacific Cargo Anchorage, Hong Kong, New YorkJFK, Portland (OR)
China Airlines Cargo Anchorage, HoustonIntercontinental, San Francisco, Seattle/Tacoma
China Cargo Airlines Anchorage, Atlanta, Dallas/Fort Worth
China Southern Cargo ShanghaiPudong [140]
DHL Aviation Anchorage, Calgary, Cincinnati, Newark, New YorkJFK
Emirates SkyCargo Maastricht [141]
Etihad Cargo Abu Dhabi, Miami [142]
EVA Air Cargo Anchorage, Dallas/Fort Worth, TaipeiTaoyuan
FedEx Express Fort Worth/Alliance, Indianapolis, Los Angeles, Memphis, Milwaukee, Newark, Oakland, Seattle/Tacoma, Pittsburgh
Korean Air Cargo Anchorage, Halifax, Los Angeles, San Francisco, Seattle/Tacoma, TorontoPearson
LOT Polish Airlines WarsawChopin
Lufthansa Cargo Anchorage, Atlanta, Frankfurt, Guadalajara, Los Angeles, Manchester (UK), Mexico City, New YorkJFK [143]
Nippon Cargo Airlines Anchorage, Dallas/Fort Worth, Edmonton, FrankfurtHahn, Los Angeles, New YorkJFK [144][145]
Qantas Freight Anchorage, Auckland, Chongqing, Honolulu, Los Angeles, Melbourne, Sydney [146][147][148][149]
Qatar Airways Cargo Amsterdam, Doha, Los Angeles, MilanMalpensa [150][151][152]
Silk Way Airlines Baku [153]
Singapore Airlines Cargo Anchorage, Atlanta, Brussels, Chennai Airport, Dallas/Fort Worth, Los Angeles, Seattle/Tacoma [154]
Turkish Airlines Cargo IstanbulAtatürk, Maastricht, Shannon, TorontoPearson [155][156]
UPS Airlines Cologne/Bonn, ColumbusRickenbacker, Louisville, Philadelphia, Portland (OR)
Yangtze River Express Anchorage, ShanghaiPudong

Statistics

Top destinations
Busiest domestic routes from Chicago O'Hare
(May 2017 April 2018)
[157]
Rank Airport Passengers Carriers
1 New YorkLaGuardia, New York 1,580,000 American, Delta, Spirit, United
2 Los Angeles, California 1,445,000 American, Frontier, Spirit, United, Virgin America
3 San Francisco, California 1,146,000 American, Frontier, United, Virgin America
4 Dallas/Fort Worth, Texas 1,047,000 American, Spirit, United
5 Denver, Colorado 992,000 American, Frontier, Spirit, United
6 Boston, Massachusetts 961,000 American, JetBlue, Spirit, United
7 Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota 902,000 American, Delta, United
8 Atlanta, Georgia 888,000 American, Delta, Spirit, United
9 PhoenixSky Harbor, Arizona 815,000 American, Frontier, Spirit, United
10 Las Vegas, Nevada 785,000 American, Frontier, Spirit, United
Busiest International Routes to and from ORD (2016)[158]
Rank Airport Passengers Annual Change Carriers
1 LondonHeathrow 1,037,444 00.8% American, British Airways, United, Virgin Atlantic
2 TorontoPearson 887,663 05.3% Air Canada, American, United
3 TokyoNarita 685,067 03.9% All Nippon, American, JAL, United
4 Frankfurt 607,328 02.5% Lufthansa, United
5 Cancún 522,129 016.1% American, Frontier, Spirit, United
6 Mexico City 488,015 01.2% Aeroméxico, Interjet, United, Volaris
7 BeijingCapital 413,448 03.1% American, Hainan, United
8 ShanghaiPudong 412,485 028.4% American, United, China Eastern
9 Dublin 397,559 018.5% Aer Lingus, American, United
10 MontréalTrudeau 393,089 02.1% Air Canada, American, United
11 Hong Kong 331,944 04.5% Cathay Pacific, United
12 Vancouver 305,317 010.0% Air Canada, United
13 ParisCharles de Gaulle 304,342 05.3% Air France, American, Delta, United
14 Munich 297,918 08.5% Lufthansa, United
15 SeoulIncheon 276,795 04.5% Asiana, Korean Air
16 Amsterdam 251,141 00.1% KLM, United
17 Abu Dhabi 245,376 08.6% Etihad Airways
18 Doha 224,654 04.2% Qatar Airways
19 IstanbulAtatürk 207,558 05.2% Turkish Airlines
20 DubaiInternational 204,539 09.6% Emirates
Airline market share
Top Airlines at ORD
(May 2017 - April 2018)[159]
Rank Airline Percent of market share
1 United Airlines 31.84%
2 American Airlines 26.79%
3 SkyWest Airlines 11.61%
4 Envoy Air 7.49%
5 Spirit Airlines 4.51%
Annual traffic
Traffic by calendar year[160]
Year Passenger volume Change over previous year Aircraft operations Cargo tonnage
2000 72,144,244 00.64% 908,989 1,640,524.1
2001 67,448,064 06.51% 911,917 1,413,834.4
2002 66,565,952 01.31% 922,817 1,436,385.7
2003 69,508,672 04.40% 928,691 1,601,735.5
2004 75,533,822 08.67% 992,427 1,685,808.0
2005 76,581,146 01.38% 972,248 1,701,446.1
2006 76,282,212 00.30% 958,643 1,718,011.0
2007 76,182,025 00.15% 926,973 1,690,741.6
2008 70,819,015 07.03% 881,566 1,480,847.4
2009 64,397,782 09.07% 827,899 1,198,426.3
2010 67,026,191 03.83% 882,617 1,577,047.8
2011 66,790,996 00.35% 878,798 1,505,217.6
2012 66,834,931 00.04% 878,108 1,443,568.7
2013 66,909,638 00.12% 883,287 1,434,377.1
2014 70,075,204 04.45% 881,933 1,578,330.1
2015 76,949,336 09.81% 875,136 1,742,500.8
2016 77,960,588 01.31% 867,635 1,726,361.6
2017 79,828,183 02.40% 867,049 1,950,137.2

Accidents and incidents

The following is a list of crashes or incidents that happened on planes at O'Hare or on approach or just after takeoff from the airport.[161]

Popular culture

Arthur Hailey's novel Airport featured a thinly-disguised O'Hare as "Lincoln International Airport". The novel, adapted into a 1970 film starring Burt Lancaster, Dean Martin, Helen Hayes, Jacqueline Bisset, and George Kennedy, famously featured a stricken airliner seeking to return to a Chicago airport battling a fierce winter storm. Airport, along with an early Hailey play called Runway Zero-Eight and the disaster-film genre of the 1970s, provided the inspiration for the successful spoof Airplane! (1980).

Both Allegiant and the film adaptation set the Bureau of Genetic Welfare's headquarters at O'Hare. In the novel, it is stated that the agency stripped equipment from the city and refurbished the terminals into offices, laboratories, and other facilities. A hotel connected to the airport was converted into housing for the members of the bureau. Aircraft are stationed for surveillance and observation purposes. The film version has a futuristic facility built on the ruins of the old airport. Bullfrogs are launched from hangars mounted on the facility, and the rest of the airport's facilities are clearly seen to be heavily damaged or destroyed.

Well-known movies that have filmed scenes at O'Hare include Contagion, Couples Retreat, Home Alone and Home Alone 2: Lost in New York, The Jackal (1997), My Best Friend's Wedding, Risky Business, Sleepless in Seattle, U.S. Marshals and Wicker Park. The television series The Amazing Race and Prison Break have each filmed multiple scenes there.[174]

See also

References

 This article incorporates public domain material from the Air Force Historical Research Agency website http://www.afhra.af.mil/.

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