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Airport Singapore (Singapore) - Changi

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Singapore Changi Airport
Lapangan Terbang Changi Singapura

(Xnjip Zhngyí Jchng)

 
  

(Cikappr Cki Vimana Nilaiyam)
Summary
Airport type Public / Military
Owner Government of Singapore[1]
Operator
Serves Singapore
Location Changi, Singapore
Opened 1 July 1981 (operational)
29 December 1981 (official)
Hub for
Time zone SST (UTC+08:00)
Elevation AMSL 6.66 m / 22 ft
Coordinates 01°2133.16N 103°5921.5E / 1.3592111°N 103.989306°E / 1.3592111; 103.989306Coordinates: 01°2133.16N 103°5921.5E / 1.3592111°N 103.989306°E / 1.3592111; 103.989306
Website www.changiairport.com
Map
SIN/WSSS
Location in Singapore
Runways
Direction Length Surface
m ft
02L/20R[N 1] 4,000 13,123 Asphalt concrete
02C/20C 4,000 13,123 Asphalt concrete
02R/20L[N 2] 2,750 9,022 Asphalt
Statistics (2016)
Passenger Movements 58,698,039
Air Freight Movements (tons) 1,969,434
Aircraft Movements 360,490

Singapore Changi Airport (IATA: SINICAO: WSSS), or simply Changi Airport, is the primary civilian airport for Singapore, and one of the largest transportation hubs in Southeast Asia. It is currently rated the World's Best Airport (Skytrax 2017),[4] for the fifth consecutive year (Skytrax's World's Best Airport 2013 2017)[5] and is one of the world's busiest airports by international passenger and cargo traffic. The airport is located in Changi, at the eastern end of Singapore, approximately 17.2 kilometres (10.7 mi) northeast[6] from Marina Bay (Singapore's Downtown Core), on a 13-square-kilometre (5.0 sq mi) site. It is operated by Changi Airport Group and it is the home base of Singapore Airlines, Singapore Airlines Cargo, SilkAir, Scoot, Tigerair, Jetstar Asia Airways and BOC Aviation.

Overview of Changi Airport

Changi Airport serves more than 100 airlines flying to some 380 cities in about 90 countries and territories worldwide. Each week, about 7,000 flights land or depart from Changi, or about one every 90 seconds, with 58.7 million passengers passing through the airport in 2016.[3]

For the 2016 full-year figures published by the airport, the airport handled 58,698,039 passengers (a 5.9% increase over the previous year), the most in its 35-year history. This made it the sixth busiest airport by international passenger traffic in the world and the second busiest in Asia. In December 2016, Changi Airport registered a total of 5.68 million passenger movements, the highest ever traffic the airport has achieved in a month since it opened in 1981. Its daily record was also broken on the Saturday before Christmas (23 December 2016), with more than 202,359 passengers passing through during the day. In addition to being an important passenger hub, the airport is one of the busiest cargo airports in the world, handling 1.97 million tonnes of cargo in 2016. The total number of commercial aircraft movements increased by 4.1% from the previous year to 360,490 in 2016.[3] In April 2017, the airport handled more than a billion passengers since it opened on 1 July 1981.[7][8]

The airport has won over 533 awards since 1981, including 26 "Best Airport" awards in just 2016 alone.[9] Changi Airport's efforts to mitigate the effects of ageing infrastructure include continual physical upgrades to its existing terminals and building new facilities to maintain its reputation for setting standards in airport service quality.[10]

Passenger Terminals

Changi Airport has three main passenger terminals, arranged in an elongated inverted 'U' shape. Currently, the airport has a designed total annual handling capacity of 66 million passengers.

  • Terminal 1 opened in 1981, located at the northern end.
  • Terminal 2 in 1990, located to the eastern side.
  • Terminal 3 in 2008, located to the western side.

There is also a privately run luxury terminal called the JetQuay CIP Terminal. It is similar to the Lufthansa First Class Terminal at Frankfurt Airport, but is open to all passengers travelling in all classes on all airlines with an access fee.

Former Terminal

The Budget Terminal opened on 26 March 2006 and ceased operations on 25 September 2012.

Future Terminals
  • Terminal 4, which will be ready in 2017, was built on the site of the former Budget Terminal.[11]
  • Terminal 5 is set to be ready in the mid-2020s. It will be able to handle 50 million passenger movements per annum.[12] The airport terminal structure will almost be larger than all the previous terminals combined, built on reclaimed land to the east of the present terminals.
  • Jewel Changi Airport, set to open in early 2019, is a multi-use structure interconnecting Terminals 1, 2 & 3. Part of the project will help expand Terminal 1 to handle 28 million passengers per year.

Operations

Passenger operations

As all passenger traffic out of the airport is international in nature, the three major terminals in operation are equipped with immigration-processing facilities for international travel.

After recovering from a drop in passenger traffic as a result of the September 11 attacks in 2001 and the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic in 2003, the airport saw rapid growth in traffic, which hit the 30-million mark for the first time a year later in 2004. In March 2008 and prior to the full effect of the financial crisis of 20072010 on the global economy, the airport predicted that it will handle 50 million passengers by 2012,[13] with increases due to the opening of casinos in Singapore, together with the phased liberalisation of the Asean aviation sector. As predicted, the airport surpassed the 50-million mark for the first time in history in 2012.[10]

Cargo operations

The Air Cargo Division of the Changi Airport Group manages the Changi Airfreight Centre[14] located in the north of the airport premises.[15] The airport handled 1.81 million tonnes of air cargo in 2012, making it the 7th-busiest airfreight hub in the world and the fifth-busiest in Asia.[16] Due to Singapore's large electronics sector, electrical components constitute a significant part of the total cargo traffic handled at the airport, although it has initiated attempts to diversify into the perishable air cargo market.

In 2015, Changi Airport handled 1,853,087 tonnes of air freight, which is more than the total combined weight of four Burj Khalifa skyscrapers.

Air Cargo World awarded Changi Airport the 2013 Air Cargo Excellence Award for airports handling more than 1,000,000 tonnes of cargo in Asia.[17]

Key markets and destinations

In 2016, Indonesia was the largest market for Singapore Changi Airport, followed by Malaysia, China, Thailand, Australia, India, Hong Kong, Japan, Philippines and Vietnam.

In 2016, Jakarta was the top destinations for travelers in Singapore Changi Airport, followed by Kuala Lumpur, Bangkok, Hong Kong, Manila, Tokyo, Denpasar, Ho Chi Minh City, Taipei and Sydney.[18]

Safety and security

The Changi Airport Group manages the overall safety and security of the airport. The Airport Management Division of the CAG manages the customer aspects of the airport's security, while the Aviation Security Unit oversees the airport's compliance with aviation security (AVSEC) policies, manages AVSEC-related projects.[15] Operationally, the airport's emergency and fire-fighting services are handled by the Airport Emergency Service Division of the CAG.[19] The AES handles all instances of rescue and fire-fighting within the airport premises as well as in surrounding waters through its specialists operating from two main fire stations (Station 1 by Runway 1 along W. Perimeter Road and Station 2 by Runway 2 along Changi Coast Road), a sub-station (Domestic Fire Station), a sea rescue base (at CAFHI jetty supporting Griffon Hoverworks 2000TD and 8000TD rescue hovercrafts, Rigid-hulled inflatable boats) around the airport.[20]

The airport's security comes under the regulatory purview of the Airport Police Division of the Singapore Police Force. The day to day discharge of security functions at the airport are performed by auxiliary police forces including Aetos Security Management, Certis CISCO and SATS Security Services, of which Aetos and SATS Security Services are affiliated to the ground handling companies of Dnata and Singapore Changi Airport Terminal Services respectively.[21] On 29 April 2008, CAAS then signed its biggest single security contract for all airport related security services by engaging Certis CISCO to provide security services at Singapore Changi Airport, as well as Seletar Airport, Changi Airfreight Centre, and the Singapore Air Traffic Control Centre.[22] It involves the deployment of about 2,600 Certis Cisco personnel, including armed Auxiliary Police Officers and unarmed aviation security officers to perform tasks including screening checked baggage, controlling access to restricted areas, and screening passengers before they board their aircraft.[23]

Since the 11 September 2001 attacks and naming of the airport as a terrorism target by the Jemaah Islamiyah, the airport's security has been stepped up. Roving patrol teams consisting of SAF and SPF officers, armed with assault rifles or sub-machine guns, patrol the terminals at random intervals.[24] Officers from the Gurkha Contingent are also deployed to patrol the transit areas of the terminal buildings. These measures come at a cost partly borne by travellers in the form of a "passenger security service charge," imposed since 2002.[25]

In 2005, an upgrade in screening technology and rising security concerns led to luggage-screening processes being conducted behind closed-doors, as opposed to them being done just before check-in previously within public view. Carry-on luggage and persons screening are conducted at the individual departure gates, while check-in luggage are screened in the backrooms and secured before loading. A perimeter intrusion detection system for Changi Airport's perimeter fence has also been put in place to further strengthen security of the airfield, while a biometric access control system for staff movement has been put in place since 2006.

Airlines and destinations

Passenger
Airlines Destinations
AirAsia Kota Kinabalu, Kuala LumpurInternational, Kuching, Langkawi, Miri, Penang
Air China BeijingCapital, Chengdu
Air France ParisCharles de Gaulle
Air India Chennai, Delhi, Mumbai
Air India Express Chennai, Kolkata, Tiruchirappalli
Air Mauritius Mauritius
Air New Zealand Auckland
Air Niugini Port Moresby
All Nippon Airways TokyoHaneda, TokyoNarita
Asiana Airlines SeoulIncheon
Bangkok Airways Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi, Koh Samui
Batik Air JakartaSoekarnoHatta
Biman Bangladesh Airlines Dhaka
British Airways LondonHeathrow, Sydney
Cathay Pacific BangkokSuvarnabhumi, Hong Kong
Cebu Pacific Cebu, Clark, Davao, Iloilo, Manila
China Airlines Kaohsiung, TaipeiTaoyuan
China Eastern Airlines Kunming, Nanjing, ShanghaiPudong
China Southern Airlines Guangzhou, Shenyang
Delta Air Lines TokyoNarita
Druk Air Kolkata, Paro
Emirates Brisbane, Colombo> DubaiInternational, Melbourne
Ethiopian Airlines Addis Ababa, Kuala LumpurInternational
Etihad Airways Abu Dhabi
EVA Air TaipeiTaoyuan
Fiji Airways Nadi
Finnair Helsinki
Firefly Ipoh, Kuala LumpurSubang, Kuantan
Garuda Indonesia Amsterdam, LondonHeathrow,[Note 1] Denpasar, JakartaSoekarnoHatta, Medan, Surabaya
IndiGo Bangalore (begins 1 July 2017),[26] Chennai
Indonesia AirAsia Bandung, Denpasar, JakartaSoekarnoHatta, Semarang, Yogyakarta
Japan Airlines TokyoHaneda, TokyoNarita
Jet Airways Bangalore, Chennai, Delhi, Mumbai
Jetstar Airways Denpasar, Melbourne, Perth
Jetstar Asia Airways BangkokSuvarnabhumi, Da Nang, Darwin, Denpasar, Guiyang, Haikou, Ho Chi Minh City, Hong Kong, JakartaSoekarnoHatta, Kuala LumpurInternational, Manila, Medan, OsakaKansai, Palembang, Pekanbaru, Penang, Perth, Phnom Penh, Phuket, Sanya, Shantou, Siem Reap, Surabaya, TaipeiTaoyuan, Yangon
Jetstar Pacific Airlines Ho Chi Minh City
KLM Amsterdam, Denpasar
Korean Air SeoulIncheon
Lion Air JakartaSoekarnoHatta
Lufthansa Frankfurt, Munich (resumes 27 March 2018)[27][28]
Malaysia Airlines Kuala LumpurInternational, Kuching, Miri
Malindo Air Kuala LumpurInternational, Penang
Myanmar Airways International Yangon
Myanmar National Airlines Yangon
Norwegian Air Shuttle
operated by Norwegian Air UK
London-Gatwick (begins 28 September 2017)[29]
Philippine Airlines Cebu,[30] Manila
Philippines AirAsia Cebu
Qantas Brisbane, Melbourne, Perth, Sydney
Qatar Airways Doha
Regent Airways Dhaka
Royal Brunei Airlines Bandar Seri Begawan
Saudia Jeddah, Riyadh
Scoot Amritsar, Athens,[31] BangkokDon Mueang, Chennai, Dalian, Gold Coast, Guangzhou, Hangzhou, Hong Kong,[32] Jeddah, Kaohsiung, Melbourne, Nanjing, OsakaKansai, Perth, Qingdao, SapporoChitose, SeoulIncheon, Shenyang, Sydney, TaipeiTaoyuan, Tianjin, TokyoNarita
Shenzhen Airlines Guangzhou, Shenzhen
Sichuan Airlines Chengdu
SilkAir Balikpapan, Bandung, Bangalore, Cairns, Cebu, Changsha, Chengdu, Chennai, Chiang Mai, Chongqing, Coimbatore, Colombo, Da Nang, Darwin, Davao, Denpasar, Fuzhou, Hanoi, Hiroshima (begins 30 Oct 2017),[33] Hyderabad, Kalibo, Kathmandu, Kochi, Koh Samui, Kolkata, Kota Kinabalu, Kuala LumpurInternational, Kuching, Kunming, Langkawi, Lombok, Luang Prabang, Makassar, Malé, Manado, Mandalay, Medan, Palembang, Pekanbaru, Penang, Phnom Penh, Phuket, Semarang, Shenzhen, Siem Reap, Surabaya, Thiruvananthapuram, Vientiane, Visakhapatnam, Wuhan, Xiamen, Yangon, Yogyakarta
Seasonal Charter: Naha
SilkAir
operated for Air Timor
Dili
SilkAir
operated for Singapore Airlines
Bandar Seri Begawan
Singapore Airlines Adelaide, Ahmedabad, Amsterdam, Auckland, Bangalore, BangkokSuvarnabhumi, Barcelona, BeijingCapital, Brisbane, Bandar Seri Begawan, Canberra, Cape Town, Chennai, Christchurch, Colombo, Copenhagen, Delhi, Denpasar, Dhaka, DubaiInternational, Düsseldorf, Frankfurt, Fukuoka, Guangzhou, Hanoi, Hong Kong, HoustonIntercontinental, Ho Chi Minh City, IstanbulAtatürk, JakartaSoekarnoHatta, JohannesburgO.R. Tambo, Kolkata, Kuala LumpurInternational, LondonHeathrow, Los Angeles, Malé, Manchester, Manila, Melbourne, MilanMalpensa, MoscowDomodedovo, Mumbai, Munich, NagoyaCentrair, New YorkJFK, OsakaKansai, ParisCharles de Gaulle, Perth, RomeFiumicino, San Francisco, SeoulIncheon, ShanghaiPudong, StockholmArlanda, Surabaya, Sydney, TaipeiTaoyuan, TokyoHaneda, TokyoNarita, Wellington, Yangon, Zürich
Seasonal: SapporoChitose
Spring Airlines ShanghaiPudong
SriLankan Airlines Colombo
Swiss International Air Lines Zürich
Thai AirAsia BangkokDon Mueang, Krabi, Phuket
Thai Airways BangkokSuvarnabhumi
Thai Lion Air BangkokDon Mueang
Tigerair Bangalore, BangkokSuvarnabhumi, Cebu, Clark, Chiang Mai, Denpasar, Dhaka, Guangzhou, Haikou, Hanoi, Hat Yai, Ho Chi Minh City, Hong Kong, Hyderabad, Ipoh, Jaipur,[34]JakartaSoekarnoHatta, Jinan, Kalibo, Kochi, Krabi, Kuala LumpurInternational, Langkawi, Lucknow, Macau, Malé, Manila, Nanning, Ningbo, Penang, Phuket, Quanzhou, Shenzhen, Surabaya, TaipeiTaoyuan, Tiruchirapalli, Wuxi, Xi'an, Yangon, Zhengzhou
Turkish Airlines IstanbulAtatürk
United Airlines ChicagoO'Hare (ends 27 October 2017),[35] Hong Kong (ends 27 October 2017), Los Angeles (begins 28 October 2017),[36] San Francisco
US-Bangla Airlines Dhaka
Uzbekistan Airways Kuala LumpurInternational, Tashkent
VietJet Air Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City
Vietnam Airlines Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City
West Air Chongqing, Urumqi
XiamenAir Fuzhou, Hangzhou, Xiamen
  1. ^ All Garuda Indonesia flights from both Amsterdam and London Heathrow to Jakarta are non-stop.
Cargo
Airlines Destinations
AirBridgeCargo Hong Kong, MoscowSheremetyevo, Phnom Penh[37][38]
Air Hong Kong Hong Kong[39]
ANA Cargo Hong Kong, Okinawa[40]
Asiana Cargo BangkokSuvarnabhumi, Hanoi, Penang, SeoulIncheon
ASL Airlines Belgium Liège, ShanghaiPudong
Cardig Air Balikpapan, JakartaSoekarnoHatta[41]
Cargolux Anchorage, Baku, ChicagoO'Hare, Doha, Ho Chi Minh City, Hong Kong, Kuala LumpurInternational, Luxembourg
Cathay Pacific Cargo BangkokSuvarnabhumi, Hanoi, Hong Kong, Penang
China Airlines Cargo BangkokSuvarnabhumi, Manila, Penang, TaipeiTaoyuan
China Cargo Airlines BangkokSuvarnabhumi, Chengdu, ShanghaiPudong
DHL Aviation
operated by AeroLogic
Bangalore, Leipzig/Halle[42]
DHL Aviation
operated by Polar Air Cargo
Anchorage, Cincinnati, Hong Kong, SeoulIncheon[43]
Emirates SkyCargo DubaiAl Maktoum,[44] Melbourne, Sydney
Etihad Cargo[45][46] Abu Dhabi, Brisbane, Sydney
EVA Air Cargo BangkokSuvarnabhumi, Penang, TaipeiTaoyuan[47]
FedEx Express Anchorage, Guangzhou, Ho Chi Minh City, JakartaSoekarnoHatta, Memphis, OsakaKansai, Penang, ShanghaiPudong, TaipeiTaoyuan, TokyoNarita
Garuda Indonesia Cargo Denpasar/Bali, JakartaSoekarnoHatta, Medan, Surabaya
Hong Kong Airlines Hong Kong[48]
Korean Air Cargo Hanoi, Penang, SeoulIncheon
K-Mile Air BangkokSuvarnabhumi[49]
My Indo Airlines Balikpapan, JakartaHalim Perdanakusuma, Surabaya[50]
Neptune Air Kuala Lumpur-International[51]
Nippon Cargo Airlines BangkokSuvarnabhumi, OsakaKansai, TokyoNarita
Singapore Airlines Cargo Adelaide, Amsterdam, Auckland, Bangalore, BangkokSuvarnabhumi, Brussels, Chennai, Coimbatore, ChicagoO'Hare, Copenhagen, Dallas/Fort Worth, Hanoi,[52] Hong Kong, JakartaSoekarnoHatta, JohannesburgOR Tambo, LondonHeathrow, Los Angeles, Medan, Melbourne, Mumbai, NairobiJomo Kenyatta, Nanjing, Sharjah, Sydney
Silk Way Airlines Baku, Kuala Lumpur-International[53]
Transmile Air Services Kuala LumpurInternational, Labuan
Tri-MG Intra Asia Airlines Balikpapan, JakartaSoekarnoHatta
Turkish Airlines Cargo IstanbulAtatürk, Karachi
UPS Airlines Hong Kong, Shenzhen, Sydney, TaipeiTaoyuan

Operational statistics

Operational statistics
Year Passenger
movements
Passenger %
Change Over
Previous Year
Airfreight
movements
(tonnes)
Airfreight %
Change Over
Previous Year
Aircraft
movements
Aircraft %
Change Over
Previous Year
1998 23,803,180 0.00% 1,283,660 0.00% 165,242 0.00%
1999 26,064,645 9.50% 1,500,393 16.8% 165,961 0.43%
2000 28,618,200 9.79% 1,682,489 12.1% 173,947 4.81%
2001 28,093,759 1.83% 1,507,062 11.6% 179,359 3.11%
2002 28,979,344 3.15% 1,637,797 8.67% 174,820 2.53%
2003 24,664,137 14.9% 1,611,407 1.63% 154,346 11.7%
2004 30,353,565 23.0% 1,775,092 10.1% 184,932 19.8%
2005 32,430,856 6.81% 1,833,721 3.30% 204,138 10.3%
2006 35,033,083 8.02% 1,931,881 5.35% 214,000 4.83%
2007 36,701,556 4.76% 1,918,159 0.69% 221,000 3.27%
2008 37,694,824 2.70% 1,883,894 1.81% 232,000 4.97%
2009 37,203,978 1.30% 1,633,791 15.3% 240,360 3.60%
2010 42,038,777 13.0% 1,813,809 11.0% 263,593 9.66%
2011 46,500,000 10.6% 1,870,000 3.14% 301,700 14.4%
2012 51,181,804 10.0% 1,806,225 3.41% 324,722 7.63%
2013 53,726,087 4.97% 1,850,233 2.43% 343,800 5.87%
2014 54,093,070 0.75% 1,843,799 0.34% 341,386 0.70%
2015 55,448,964 2.50% 1,853,087 0.50% 346,334 1.44%
2016 58,698,039 5.85% 1,969,434 6.28% 360,490 4.09%
Sources:[54][55][56][57][58][59]

Accidents and incidents

  • On 26 March 1991, Singapore Airlines Flight 117 was hijacked by four Pakistani terrorists and landed in Changi Airport at 22:15. The Singapore Special Operations Force stormed the plane, an A310, on the morning of March 27, and killed the four hijackers, saving the lives of all 123 passengers and crew that were held hostage for more than eight hours.
  • On 4 November 2010, Qantas Flight 32, operated by an Airbus A380-800, suffered an uncontained engine failure and made an emergency landing in Changi Airport. Upon landing, one of the engines could not be shut down due to ruptured control cables and had to be doused for three hours by airport firefighters to forcefully shut it down. All 469 people on board survived this incident.
  • On 27 June 2016, Singapore Airlines Flight 368, a Boeing 777-300ER, suffered an engine problem during a flight from Singapore to Milan. During the diversionary landing in Singapore, the right engine and wing caught fire. The fire was quickly extinguished by airport fire services. There were no injuries among the 241 people on board.
  • On 16 May 2017, a fire broke out at the Terminal 2 departure hall.[60] The fire caused all 40 flights at Terminal 2 to be delayed and were diverted to Terminal 3.[61]

Ground transportation

Changi Airport was built with ground-transportation considerations in mind from the onset, with the East Coast Parkway built and opened in tandem with the airport, providing a direct link to the city-centre. At a distance of about 20 km (12 mi), the expressway was built almost entirely on reclaimed land, thus minimising disruptions to the existing road network in Singapore's East Coast.

While configured in a compact configuration such that the three main passenger terminal buildings are sited adjacent to each other, allowing for travellers to venture between terminals on foot, the Changi Airport Skytrain people-mover system was added to facilitate quicker and more convenient transfers. The system was upgraded in 2007 to Mitsubishi technology, connecting to Terminal 3 and separating checked-in passengers from the general public on distinct tracks.

Inter-Terminal Transportation

The Changi Airport Skytrain operates between Terminals 1, 2 and 3, with a total of seven stations. The trains have separate cars for air-side (transit) and land-side (public) passengers.

External connections

Mass Rapid Transit

The airport is connected to the Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) network via a two-stop branch of the East West Line from Tanah Merah MRT Station, consisting of two stations: Expo, serving the nearby Singapore Expo site; and Changi Airport, located underground between Terminal 2 and Terminal 3 and directly accessible from both terminals. A direct, one-train service to the downtown and western parts of Singapore was initially in operation when the station opened on 8 February 2002. This was replaced by the current shuttle service between Tanah Merah and Changi Airport via Expo on 22 July 2003,[62] when it was found that few passengers actually use this route, compared to the number of commuters who need to travel from the city to Tampines and Pasir Ris. Cross-platform transfers are therefore necessary at Tanah Merah to connect to the rest of the network.

Bus

Buses were one of the main methods of transport for passengers and staff until the opening of Changi Airport station. Services operated by SBS Transit, SMRT Buses and Go-Ahead Group uses the bus terminals in the basement level of the three main terminals, making a loop starting from Terminal 3 to Terminals 1, and 2, and back to their destination of origin.

Coaches to and from Johor Bahru are also available. Operated by Transtar Travel, the service will start at coach stands at Terminals 1, 2, 3 and end at Larkin Terminal.

There is also a free shuttle bus service plying between Changi Airport (T3) and Changi Business Park. This service is a 9-stop route, running from Mondays to Fridays, except public holidays.[63]

Taxi

Taxis are available at the taxi stands at the arrival halls of each terminal. There is an additional airport surcharge (S$3.00-5.00)[64] for all trips originating from the airport.

See also

References

Notes
  1. ^ Runway 02L is 4,000 m (13,000 ft) and 20R is 3,260 m (10,700 ft) with a displaced threshold of 740 m (2,430 ft). Thus aircraft landing on 20R will have to avoid touching down on the displaced threshold but may use it for departures.
  2. ^ Runway 02R/20L is currently closed for development works.[2] Previously, it was restricted to the Republic of Singapore Air Force (see Changi Air Base). It is being extended to 4,000 m (13,000 ft) for commercial use in the future.
Citations
  1. ^ The Official Site of. Changi Airport Group. Retrieved on 15 August 2012.
  2. ^ "LOCATION OF RUNWAY 02R/20L IN RELATION TO RUNWAY 02L/20R AND RUNWAY 02C/20C" (PDF). Civil Aviation Authority of Singapore. 15 September 2016. Retrieved 18 September 2016. 
  3. ^ a b c "Passenger, airfreight & aircraft movements statistics for 2016". Changi Airport Group. 30 January 2017. Retrieved 30 January 2017. 
  4. ^ "Singapore Changi Airport named as the Worlds Best Airport in 2016". Skytrax. 16 March 2016. Retrieved 16 March 2016. 
  5. ^ "http://www.airlinequality.com/news/best-airports-of-2017-unveiled-at-world-airport-awards/". www.airlinequality.com. Retrieved 2017-03-15.  External link in |title= (help)
  6. ^ "Regulations" (PDF). Caas.gov.sg. Retrieved 2017-03-03. 
  7. ^ "A billion passengers on, Changi Airport aims higher". The Straits Times. 29 May 2017. 
  8. ^ "Changi Airport reaches 1 billion passengers milestone". Channel NewsAsia. 
  9. ^ "accolades  Changi Airport Group". Changi Airport. 30 January 2017. Retrieved 30 January 2017. 
  10. ^ a b "A record 51 million passengers for Changi Airport in 2012" (PDF). Changaiairportgroup.com. Retrieved 2017-03-03. 
  11. ^ "Changi's Budget Terminal to make way for new and improved terminal". Channelnewsasia.com. Retrieved 2017-03-03. 
  12. ^ "Changi Airport's Terminal 5 ready in mid-2020s". Yahoo News Singapore. 30 August 2013. Retrieved 10 May 2015. 
  13. ^ "Changi poised to handle 50 million passengers a year by 2012". Channelnewsasia.com. 28 March 2008. Retrieved 8 November 2011. 
  14. ^ "changi airfreight centre". Changi Airport Group. Retrieved 8 November 2011. 
  15. ^ a b "Our Divisions". Civil Aviation Authority of Singapore (CAAS). Archived from the original on 26 September 2006. Retrieved 3 November 2006. 
  16. ^ Year to date International Freight Traffic. aci.aero
  17. ^ "2013 Awards". Air Cargo World. 2013. Retrieved 9 August 2013. 
  18. ^ "Top 10 Changi City Links in 2016". Changi Airport Group. Changi Airport Group. 30 January 2017. Retrieved 1 Feb 2017. 
  19. ^ Changi Airport Group Annual Report 2009/10. (PDF) . Retrieved on 15 August 2012.
  20. ^ "civil fire stations". Changi Airport Group. Retrieved 12 June 2011. 
  21. ^ "Changi Airport's third ground handling licence awarded to ASIG". Channel NewsAsia. 9 June 2011. Retrieved 8 November 2011. 
  22. ^ "Certis CISCO awarded $360 million Master Security Services Contract by CAAS". Certissecurity.com. 28 April 2008. Retrieved 8 November 2011. 
  23. ^ 50 Years of Securing Your World. Annual Review 2008/2009. certissecurity.com (PDF) . Retrieved on 15 August 2012.
  24. ^ "Counter Terrorism Efforts at Singapore's Changi Airport". South Asia Analysis Group. Retrieved 12 June 2011. 
  25. ^ "Changi Airport to Impose Security Levy". Straits Times. Singapore. 10 January 2002. Archived from the original on 2 September 2006. Retrieved 3 November 2006. 
  26. ^ "IndiGo introduces daily non-stop flight between Singapore and Bengaluru" (PDF). 
  27. ^ https://www.ausbt.com.au/lufthansa-to-launch-singapore-munich-airbus-a350-flights
  28. ^ Lufthansa S18 long-haul changes as of 21JUN17
  29. ^ 2017, UBM (UK) Ltd. "Norwegian Air UK launches Singapore service from Sep 2017". Retrieved 30 May 2017. 
  30. ^ "Philippine Airlines schedules Cebu Singapore flights from Dec 2016". Routesonline. Retrieved 2017-02-12. 
  31. ^ "Scoot to fly to Europe from next year, starting with Athens". 
  32. ^ "Scoot resumes Hong Kong service from May 2017". routesonline. Retrieved 3 April 2017. 
  33. ^ "SilkAir To Launch Non-Stop Flights Between Singapore And Hiroshima". www.silkair.com. 
  34. ^ 2017, UBM (UK) Ltd. "Scoot ends Jaipur service in late-March 2017". Retrieved 30 May 2017. 
  35. ^ "United Airlines serves up San Francisco Singapore service". anna.aero. 6 June 2016. Retrieved 30 May 2017. 
  36. ^ http://newsroom.united.com/2017-06-01-United-Airlines-Announces-Nonstop-Service-Between-Los-Angeles-and-Singapore
  37. ^ "AirBridgeCargo Airlines debuts at Singapore Changi Airport with direct freighter flights from Moscow". 
  38. ^ "AirBridgeCargo is on its way developing services in Asia | Company news | Media Centre | AirBridgeCargo". airbridgecargo.com. 
  39. ^ "Air HongKong". Retrieved 10 May 2015. 
  40. ^ "ANA Cargo International Timetable & Connections (Asia)" (PDF). 
  41. ^ "Cardig Air Scheduled Timetable". Cardigair.com. Retrieved 1 January 2014. 
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Bibliography
  • Winchester, Clarence, ed. (1938), "Singapore's great airport", Wonders of World Aviation, pp. 128130 , illustrated description of the newly opened Singapore Airport

External links

Media related to Singapore Changi Airport at Wikimedia Commons


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