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Airport Bangkok (China) - Suvarnabhumi

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Suvarnabhumi Airport
Summary
Airport type Public
Operator Airports of Thailand PCL (AOT)
Serves Bangkok and Samut Prakan
Location 999 Moo 1 Racha Thewa, Bang Phli, Samut Prakan, Thailand
Hub for
Focus city for
Elevation AMSL 5 ft / 2 m
Coordinates 13°4133N 100°4500E / 13.69250°N 100.75000°E / 13.69250; 100.75000Coordinates: 13°4133N 100°4500E / 13.69250°N 100.75000°E / 13.69250; 100.75000
Website [2]
Map
BKK
BKK
BKK
Runways
Direction Length Surface
m ft
01R/19L 4,000 13,123 Asphalt
01L/19R 3,700 12,139 Asphalt
3rd Runway (Planning) 3,700 12,139 Asphalt
Statistics (2017)
Total passengers 60,860,704 8.9%
International passengers 49,536,015 7.5%
Domestic passengers 11,334,689 13.35%
Aircraft movements 350,508 6.08%
Freight (tonnes) 1,439,913 10.2%
Sources: Airport[1]

Suvarnabhumi Airport (RTGSSuwannaphum, pronounced [sù.wn.n.pm] ( listen)[2]) (IATA: BKK, ICAO: VTBS), also known unofficially as Bangkok Airport[3][4], is one of two international airports serving Bangkok, Thailand. The other is Don Mueang International Airport.[5][6] Suvarnabhumi covers an area of 3,240 hectares (8,000 acres), making it one of the biggest international airports in Southeast Asia and a regional hub for aviation.

Suvarnabhumi was officially opened for limited domestic flight service on 15 September 2006, and opened for most domestic and all international commercial flights on 28 September 2006.[7]

The airport is currently the main hub for Thai Airways International, Thai Smile Airways, and Bangkok Airways. It also serves as regional gateway and connecting point for various foreign carriers.

The airport is on what had formerly been known as Nong Nguhao (Cobra Swamp) in Racha Thewa in Bang Phli, Samut Prakan, about 25 kilometres (16 mi) east of downtown Bangkok. The terminal building was designed by Helmut Jahn of Murphy / Jahn Architects. It was constructed primarily by ITO JV. The airport has the world's tallest free-standing control tower (132.2 metres or 434 feet) from 2006 to 2014,[8] and the world's fourth largest single-building airport terminal (563,000 square metres or 6,060,000 square feet).

Suvarnabhumi is the 21st busiest airport in the world,[9] ninth busiest airport in Asia, and the busiest in the country, having handled 53 million passengers in 2012,[10] and is also a major air cargo hub, with a total of 95 airlines. On social networks, Suvarnabhumi was the world's most popular site for taking Instagram photographs in 2012.[11]

The airport inherited the airport code, BKK, from Don Mueang after the previous airport ceased international commercial flights. The modern Motorway 7 connects the airport, Bangkok, and the heavily industrial eastern seaboard of Thailand, where most export manufacturing takes place.

Etymology

The name Suvarnabhumi is Sanskrit for "Land of Gold" (Devanagari: , IAST: Suvarabhmi; Suvara is "Gold", Bhmi is "Land"; literally "Golden Land"). The name was chosen by the late King Bhumibol Adulyadej which the name Bhmi was being part of the monarch's profile and as it named after him and refers to the Hindu-Buddhist golden kingdom, theorised to have been located to the east of the Ganges, possibly somewhere in Southeast Asia. In Thailand, government proclamations and national museums insist that Suvarnabhumi was somewhere in the coast of central plain, near the ancient city of U Thong, which might be the origin of the Indianised Dvaravati culture.[12] Although the claims have not been substantiated by any historical records, the Thai government named the new Bangkok airport Suvarnabhumi Airport, in celebration of this tradition.

History

Land purchase, early construction

The need for the new airport was recognized in 1973 when 8,000 acres of land was purchased 40 kilometres east of Bangkok. The site, known as Cobra Swamp, was drained and named Suvarnabhumi, meaning "realm of gold". On 14 October 1973, student-led protests led to the overthrow of the military government of Prime Minister Thanom Kittikachorn and the project was shelved.

After a series of ups and downs, the "New Bangkok International Airport" company (NBIA) was formed in 1996. Due to political and economic instabilities, notably the Asian financial crisis of 1997, construction did not begin until six years later in January 2002 by the government of Thaksin Shinawatra.

Early construction, airport tests, and official opening

The airport was due to open in late 2005, but a series of budget overruns, construction flaws, and allegations of corruption plagued the project.

A further delay was caused by the discovery that the airport had been built over an old graveyard. Superstitious construction workers claimed to have seen ghosts there. On 23 September 2005, the Thai airports authority held a ceremony where 99 Buddhist monks chanted to appease the spirits.[13]

Full tests of the airport took place on 3 and 29 July 2006. Six airlinesThai Airways International, Nok Air, Thai Air Asia, Bangkok Airways, PBair, and One-Two-GOused the airport as a base for twenty domestic flights.[14][15] The first international test flights were conducted on 1 September 2006. Two Thai Airways aircraft, a Boeing 747-400 and an Airbus A300-600, simultaneously departed the airport at 09:19 to Singapore and Hong Kong. At 15:50 the same aircraft flew back and made simultaneous touchdowns on runways 19L and 19R. These test flights demonstrated the readiness of the airport to handle traffic.[citation needed]

On 15 September 2006, the airport started limited daily operations with Jetstar Asia Airways operating three Singapore to Bangkok flights. Bangkok Airways moved to the airport on 21 September. AirAsia and Thai AirAsia followed on 25 September and on 26 September Nok Air moved to Suvarnabhumi Airport. During this initial phase, as well as in the previous tests, the airport used the temporary IATA code NBK.[citation needed]

Suvarnabhumi officially opened at 03:00 on 28 September 2006, taking over all flights from Don Mueang. The first flight to arrive was a Lufthansa Cargo flight LH8442 from Mumbai at 03:05.[16] The first commercial arrival was Japan Airlines at 03:30. The first passenger arrival was Aerosvit flight VV171 from Kiev at 04:30, and the first cargo departure was Saudi Arabian Airlines flight SV-984 to Riyadh at 05:00.[17] Aerosvit also had the first passenger departure (VV172 to Kiev) around 05:30.[18]

Initial difficulties

Difficulties were reported in the first few days of the airport's operation. On the first day alone, sluggish luggage handling was commonthe first passenger arrival by Aerosvit took an hour for the luggage to start coming out, and some flights did not have their luggage coming out even after four hours. Flights were delayed (Thai Airways claimed that 17 of 19 flights were delayed that day), and there were failures with the check-in system.[19][20] Subsequent problems included the failure of the cargo computer system, and the departure boards displaying the wrong information, resulting in confused passengers (especially as unlike Don Mueang, there were no "final calls" issued).[21]

Months after its opening, issues of congestion, construction quality, signage, provision of facilities, and soil subsidence continued to plague the project, prompting calls to reopen Don Mueang to allow for repairs to be made.[22] Expert opinions varied widely on the extent of Suvarnabhumi's problems as well as their root cause. Most airlines stated that damage to the airport was minimal.[23][24] Then Prime Minister Surayud Chulanont reopened Don Mueang for domestic flights on a voluntary basis on 16 February 2007, with 71 weekly flights moved back initially, but no international flights.[25]

Capacity and safety issues

Tarmac problems

In January 2007, ruts were discovered in the runways at Suvarnabhumi.[26] The east runway was scheduled to close for repairs. Expert opinions varied as to the cause of the ruts.[23] Airport authorities and airline representatives maintained that the airport was still safe and resisted suggestions that the airport should be completely closed and all flights moved back to Don Mueang.[27]

On 27 January 2007, the Department of Civil Aviation declined to renew the airport's safety certificate, which had expired the previous day. The ICAO requires that international airports hold aerodrome safety certificates, but Suvarnabhumi continued to operate because the ICAO requirement had yet to be adopted as part of Thai law.[28]

As of early 2016, tarmac problems persisted at Suvarnabhumi. Soft spots on the tarmac, taxiways, and apron area had not been permanently fixed. Aircraft were getting stuck on the soft surfaces that are the result of sub-standard materials. "The constant resurfacing of the tarmac, taxiways and apron area with asphalt is an unacceptable patchwork solution. We literally need a "concrete" solution," said Tony Tyler, IATA's director general and CEO.[29]

Plans to re-open Don Mueang for domestic flights

In January 2007, Thai Airways announced a plan to move some of its domestic operations back to Don Mueang International Airport due to overcrowding. Three days later, the Ministry of Transport recommended temporarily reopening Don Mueang while repair work on the runways at Suvarnabhumi proceeded. At that time, Thai Airways said it would shift most of its domestic flights back to Don Mueang while keeping flights with high international passenger connections such as Chiang Mai and Phuket at Suvarnabhumi. On 28 March 2009, Thai Airways discontinued all domestic flights from Don Mueang. Bangkok Airways and One-Two-GO had similar plans, but Bangkok Airways remained at Suvarnabhumi. Thai AirAsia said it would not move unless it could shift both its international and domestic operations, prompting them to stay at Suvarnabhumi for the time being. Nok Air and PBair were undecided, but Nok Air later relocated all flights to Don Mueang, where they operate today.[30][31] As of January 2010, only Nok Air and One-Two-GO operated domestic flights from Don Mueang Airport. PBair have ceased operations altogether. One-Two-GO was integrated into Orient Thai Airlines in July 2010, but continues to operate from Don Mueang Airport. As of 1 October 2012 Air Asia has moved all of its Bangkok operations to Don Mueang International Airport (DMK) from Suvarnabhumi Airport (BKK).[32]

Repair and upgrades

Airports of Thailand found that the cost of fixing 60 identified problems at the airport would be less than one percent of the total airline cost and the problems could be fixed in up to four to five years. Dr Narupol Chaiyut, a member of a committee overseeing service problems at the new airport, estimated that 70 percent of the problems would be fixed in 2007. Twenty of the 60 problems were successfully fixed by February 2007.[33]

Features

Suvarnabhumi Airport's main terminal roof is designed with structural elements and bays placed in a cantilevered, wavelike form to appear to "float" over the concourse beneath. This overall design principle was to express the former essence of the site, from which water had to be drained before construction could begin. The eight composite 2,710-ton trusses supporting the canopy of the main terminal are essentially diagrams of the bending moments acting on them, with the greatest depth at mid-span and over the supports.[34]

The result of Helmut Jahn's vision is a structure with performance materials serve in their total composition and in use more than in their conventional roles. This maximizes daylight use in comfort with substantial energy life-cycle cost savings. The installed cooling system reduced up to 50 percent compared to a conventional system. A translucent membrane with three layers was developed to mediate between the interior and exterior climate, dealing with noise and temperature transmission, while still allowing natural flow of daylight into building.[35]

Events

On 25 January 2007, due to work upgrading the taxiways which suffered from small cracks, a few incoming flights were delayed and several flights were safely diverted to U-Tapao International Airport in Rayong Province.[36]

On 26 November 2008, an illegal occupation of the airport took place by People's Alliance for Democracy, closing the departure lounge and blocking exits and leaving almost 3,000 passengers stranded in the main terminal and another 350,000 stranded inside the country, as all flights were grounded. The People's Alliance for Democracy seized the control tower at 12:00.[37] On 2 December 2008, protesters agreed to leave the airport as they had been illegally protesting and permitted the resumption of flights. Security checks, clean-ups, and re-certification once the illegal occupation ended delayed the airport from being fully functional until 5 December 2008.[38]

Predatory irregularities

Petty thieves and confidence men, the majority of them illegal taxi drivers or tour guides, are known to prey on tourists in the arrival hall. They belong to politically-well connected criminal groups: Kamnan Samruay, Boonruang Srisang, Sak Pakphanang, the Pattaya Mafia and Phuyai Daeng.[39] Evicting them has proved difficult as they allegedly are well connected. (The head of the Pirap gang is supposedly related to an Airports of Thailand executive, while the Phuyai Daeng has ties to influential civil servants in Samut Prakan).[39]

On 1 October 2010, two hundred armed men occupied the airport's parking area for an hour, blocking the building's entrances and seizing ticket booths to collect fares from motorists.[40] Airport security personnel failed to respond, reportedly because of an internal dispute within the parking management company, the firm contracted to run the parking facilities.[40]

Specifications

Costing an estimated 155 billion baht (US$5 billion), the airport has two parallel runways (60 m wide, 4,000 m and 3,700 m long) and two parallel taxiways to accommodate simultaneous departures and arrivals.[41] It has a total of 120 parking bays (51 with contact gates and 69 remote gates), with five of these capable of accommodating the Airbus A380. The main passenger terminal building, with a capacity of handling 76 flight operations per hour, co-locates the international and domestic terminals, though assigning them to different parts of the concourse. In the initial phase of construction, it was capable of handling 45 million passengers and three million tonnes of cargo per year. Above the underground rail link station and in front of the passenger terminal building is a 600-room hotel operated by Accor Group under the Novotel brand.

The airport's passenger terminal is the world's largest passenger terminal ever constructed in one phase at 563,000 square metres (6,060,000 sq ft), and is also currently the fourth biggest passenger terminal building in the world, after the Hong Kong International Airport (570,000 square metres or 6,100,000 square feet), Beijing Capital International Airport (990,000 square metres or 10,700,000 square feet), with the largest passenger terminal at Dubai International Airport (Terminal 3 is over 1,713,000 square metres or 18,440,000 square feet). The airport air-traffic control tower is the tallest in the world at 135 metres (443 ft) from 2006 to 2014.[8]

Suvarnabhumi Airport has 72 jet bridges and 69 non-jet bridges. Additionally, flights are able to park at remote locations on the ramp, from which airport buses transport passengers to and from the terminal. Suvarnabhumi Airport has 18 jet bridges and 6 non-jet bridges for Airbus 380800[citation needed]

From the opening of Suvarnabhumi in 2006 to early 2017, eight people had fallen to their deaths from upper-floor walkways, prompting the airport to spend 33 million baht in 2013 building glass barriers to stop people falling or taking their lives.[42]

Expansion

By mid-2015, the airport was handling more than 800 flights per day, higher than its 600-flight capacity. It has exceeded its capacity of 45 million passengers per year.[43]

Airports of Thailand (AOT) approved an investment budget for the expansion of Suvarnabhumi Airport and expected construction to begin in 2019 and finish in 2021 or early 2022.[44][45] The plan was to strengthen Suvarnabhumi Airport's position as a regional aviation hub. Phase Two would raise the airport's capacity to 65 million passengers a year and would be undertaken in parallel with the construction of a new domestic terminal.[46] The new domestic terminal will be intended to accommodate more than 30 million passengers annually.[45]

The two expansion projects are part of the overall airport enlargement that would see Suvarnabhumi raise its annual passenger handling capacity to 125 million passengers, 90 million international and 35 million domestic passengers by 2024 at an estimated cost of 163 billion baht.(US$5.25 billion/3.62 billion) The expansion includes the construction of one additional runway, subsequent enlargement of domestic and international terminals, and improvements to parking bays, car parks, and other airport infrastructure.[47]

An expansion plan to increase the passenger capacity of the airport to 65 million by building an additional satellite passenger terminal linked to the current main terminal via an underground automated people mover (APM) system is set to be voted on by the AOT board during a 17 May 2012 meeting. If the plan gains endorsement by the board it will be able to proceed to appointing a project management consultant (PMC) which will bring it one step closer to commencing construction on the much needed expansion. If all goes to plan the expansion is set to be completed in 2018. The expansion also includes a plan to expand the airport parking garage as well as the expansion of the eastern end of the main passenger terminal by 135 meters along with the construction of a new airline office building. The expansion does include plans to construct a third runway of 3,700 meters. According to the Bangkok Post, the new satellite terminal will have a total of 28 gates, with eight for the Airbus A380 super jumbo jet.[48]

The new passenger terminal will be used only by Bangkok Airways and flag carrier Thai Airways (and its budget subsidiary Thai Smile). Upon completion of satellite terminal, expected opening in early 2019, other Star Alliance members will be given a check-in concourse of Thai Airways.[49]

Airlines and destinations

Passenger
AirlinesDestinations
Aeroflot MoscowSheremetyevo
Air Astana Almaty, Astana
Air Austral SaintDenis de la Réunion
Air China BeijingCapital, Chengdu, Hangzhou, Lianyungang,[50] ShanghaiPudong, Tianjin
Air France ParisCharles de Gaulle
Air India Delhi, Mumbai
Air Italy MilanMalpensa (begins 9 September 2018)[51]
Air Macau Macau
Air Mauritius Mauritius, Singapore (both begin 1 November 2018)[52]
All Nippon Airways TokyoHaneda, TokyoNarita
Arkia Tel AvivBen Gurion[53]
Asia Atlantic Airlines Charter: Denpasar/Bali,[citation needed] Harbin,[citation needed] SapporoChitose,[citation needed] Shenyang[citation needed]
Asiana Airlines SeoulIncheon
Austrian Airlines Vienna
Azur Air Seasonal charter: Barnaul, MoscowDomodedovo, Omsk, Rostov-on-Don, Surgut, Tyumen
Bangkok Airways Chiang Mai, Chiang Rai, Da Nang, Dhaka, Ko Samui, Krabi, Lampang, Luang Prabang, Malé, Mandalay, Mumbai, Naypyidaw, Nha Trang (begins 25 January 2019),[54] Phnom Penh, Phu Quoc, Phuket, Siem Reap, Singapore, Sukhothai, Trat, Vientiane, Yangon
Beijing Capital Airlines Guiyang, Xi'an, Zhanjiang
Biman Bangladesh Airlines Dhaka
Bhutan Airlines Kolkata, Thimphu/Paro
Seasonal: Gaya[55]
British Airways LondonHeathrow
Cathay Pacific Hong Kong, Singapore
Cebu Pacific Manila
China Airlines Kaohsiung, TaipeiTaoyuan
China Eastern Airlines BeijingCapital, Chengdu, Chongqing, Fuzhou, Guangzhou [56], Kunming, Lanzhou, Nanchang, Nanjing, Ningbo, Qingdao, ShanghaiPudong, Wenzhou, Wuhan, Wuxi, Taiyuan, Xi'an, Xining, Yinchuan
Seasonal: BeijingCapital, Hangzhou, Hefei
China Southern Airlines Changsha, Guangzhou, Guilin, Guiyang, Jieyang, Lanzhou, Nanning, Shenyang, Shenzhen, Urumqi (begins 29 October 2018),[57] Wuhan, Zhengzhou
Druk Air Bagdogra, Gaya, Guwahati, Kolkata, Thimphu/Paro
Eastar Jet Jeju, SeoulIncheon
EgyptAir Cairo, Hong Kong (begins 18 September 2018)[58]
El Al Tel AvivBen Gurion
Emirates DubaiInternational, Hong Kong, Sydney
Ethiopian Airlines Addis Ababa, Hong Kong
Etihad Airways Abu Dhabi
Eurowings Seasonal: Cologne/Bonn (ends 27 October 2018),[59] Düsseldorf (begins 28 October 2018),[60] Munich[61]
EVA Air Amsterdam, LondonHeathrow, TaipeiTaoyuan, Vienna
Finnair Helsinki
Garuda Indonesia JakartaSoekarnoHatta
Gulf Air Bahrain
Hainan Airlines BeijingCapital, Haikou, Nanning, Sanya
Hebei Airlines Shijiazhuang
Hong Kong Airlines Hong Kong
IndiGo Bangalore (begins 27 October 2018),[62] Chennai (begins 27 October 2018),[62] Kolkata
Japan Airlines NagoyaCentrair, OsakaKansai, TokyoHaneda, TokyoNarita
JC International Airlines Phnom Penh
Jeju Air Busan, SeoulIncheon
Seasonal: Cheongju,[63] Muan[64]
Jet Airways Delhi, Mumbai
Jet Asia Airways TokyoNarita, JakartaSoekarnoHatta
Jetstar Airways Melbourne
Jetstar Asia Airways Singapore
Jetstar Pacific Airlines Ho Chi Minh City
Charter: Cam Ranh
Jin Air Busan, SeoulIncheon
Seasonal: Jeju
Juneyao Airlines ShanghaiPudong, Shenyang
KC International Airlines Phnom Penh[65]
Kenya Airways Guangzhou, NairobiJomo Kenyatta
KLM Amsterdam
Korean Air Busan, SeoulIncheon
Kuwait Airways Kuwait City
Lanmei Airlines Phnom Penh
Lao Airlines Luang Prabang, Savannakhet, Vientiane, Pakse
Lucky Air Kunming, Zhengzhou (begins 30 October 2018)[66]
Lufthansa Frankfurt
Mahan Air TehranImam Khomeini
Malaysia Airlines Kuala LumpurInternational
Maldivian Chengdu, Hangzhou,[67] Malé
MIAT Mongolian Airlines Ulaanbaatar
Myanmar Airways International Mandalay, Yangon
Myanmar National Airlines Mandalay, Yangon
Nepal Airlines Kathmandu
Nordwind Airlines MoscowSheremetyevo
Seasonal charter: Arkhangelsk, Mineralnye Vody, St. Petersburg
Norwegian Air Shuttle Copenhagen, OsloGardermoen, StockholmArlanda
Okay Airways Tianjin, Xi'an
Oman Air Muscat
Pakistan International Airlines Karachi
Peach Naha
Pegas Fly Seasonal charter: Khabarovsk, Ulan-Ude, YuzhnoSakhalinsk
Philippine Airlines Cebu, Manila
Qantas Sydney
Qatar Airways Doha, Hanoi
Regent Airways Chittagong, Dhaka
Royal Brunei Airlines Bandar Seri Begawan
Royal Flight Seasonal charter: Barnaul, Kazan, Kemerovo, Krasnoyarsk, Omsk, Vladivostok
Royal Jordanian AmmanQueen Alia, Hong Kong, Kuala LumpurInternational
S7 Airlines Irkutsk, Novosibirsk
Seasonal: Krasnoyarsk-Yemelyanovo (resumes 1 November 2018)
Scoot Singapore
Shandong Airlines Jinan, Kunming, Qingdao, Urumqi, Xiamen
Shenzhen Airlines Fuzhou, Jieyang, Nanjing, Quanzhou, Shenzhen, Wuxi, Xi'an, Yuncheng
Seasonal: Guangzhou
Sichuan Airlines Chengdu, Haikou, Sanya
Singapore Airlines Singapore
SpiceJet Ahmedabad, Delhi, Hyderabad (begins October 10 2018),[68] Kolkata
Spring Airlines Beihai, Changchun, Changzhou, Chengdu, Dalian, Fuzhou, Harbin, Hangzhou, Hohhot, Jinan, Lanzhou, Luoyang, Nanchang, Ningbo, ShanghaiPudong, Shenyang, Shijiazhuang, Yangzhou, Yinchuan
SriLankan Airlines Colombo, Guangzhou
Swiss International Air Lines Zürich
Thai Airways Auckland, Bangalore, BeijingCapital, Brisbane, Brussels, Busan, Chengdu, Chennai, Chiang Mai, Colombo, Copenhagen, Delhi, Dhaka, Denpasar/Bali, DubaiInternational, Frankfurt, Fukuoka, Guangzhou, Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City, Hong Kong, Hyderabad, Islamabad, JakartaSoekarnoHatta, Karachi, Kathmandu, Kolkata, Krabi, Kunming, Kuala LumpurInternational, Lahore, LondonHeathrow, Manila, Melbourne, MilanMalpensa, MoscowDomodedovo, Mumbai, Munich, Muscat, NagoyaCentrair, OsakaKansai, OsloGardermoen, ParisCharles de Gaulle, Perth, Phnom Penh, Phuket, RomeFiumicino, SapporoChitose, SeoulIncheon, ShanghaiPudong, Singapore, StockholmArlanda, Sydney, TaipeiTaoyuan, TokyoHaneda, TokyoNarita, Vienna, Vientiane, Xiamen, Yangon, Zürich
Hajj charter: Jeddah, Medina
Seasonal charter: Sendai
Thai Smile Changsha, Chiang Mai, Chiang Rai, Chittagong, Chongqing, Hat Yai, Jaipur, Kaohsiung, Khon Kaen, Krabi, Kuala LumpurInternational, Luang Prabang, Lucknow, Mumbai, Narathiwat, Penang, Phnom Penh, Phuket, Siem Reap, Surat Thani, Ubon Ratchathani, Udon Thani, Vientiane, Yangon, Zhengzhou
Seasonal: Gaya, Varanasi
Thai Vietjet Air Chiang Mai, Chiang Rai, Da Lat, Hai Phong, Phuket
Seasonal: Gaya, Krabi
Charter: Can Tho, Hualien, Hue, Taichung, Thanh Hoa
Turkish Airlines IstanbulAtatürk
Turkmenistan Airlines Ashgabat
T'way Air Daegu, SeoulIncheon
Ukraine International Airlines KievBoryspil
Ural Airlines BeijingCapital, Changchun, Harbin, Irkutsk,[69] Khabarovsk, Ordos[69]
Seasonal: Vladivostok
US-Bangla Airlines Dhaka
Uzbekistan Airways Tashkent
VietJet Air Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City
Vietnam Airlines Da Nang, Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City
Charter: Gaya
XiamenAir Dalian, Fuzhou, Hangzhou,[70] Quanzhou, Xiamen
Cargo
AirlinesDestinations
ANA Cargo OsakaKansai, Singapore, TaipeiTaoyuan, TokyoNarita
Asiana Cargo SeoulIncheon
Cardig Air Hong Kong, JakartaSoekarnoHatta, Singapore
Cargolux Baku, Luxembourg, ShanghaiPudong, Xiamen
Cathay Pacific Cargo Hong Kong, Penang, Singapore
China Airlines Cargo Abu Dhabi, Chengdu, Luxembourg, TaipeiTaoyuan
China Cargo Airlines ShanghaiPudong
DHL Aviation Hong Kong, Leipzig/Halle,[71] Penang
EVA Air Cargo[72] Hanoi,[73] JakartaSoekarnoHatta, Penang, Singapore, TaipeiTaoyuan
FedEx Express Guangzhou, Penang
K-Mile Air Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City, Hong Kong, JakartaSoekarnoHatta, Singapore
Korean Air Cargo SeoulIncheon, Singapore, Chennai
Lufthansa Cargo Frankfurt, Mumbai, Sharjah
MASKargo Kuala LumpurInternational, Hong Kong[74]
Nippon Cargo Airlines Singapore, TokyoNarita
Singapore Airlines Cargo ShanghaiPudong, Singapore
Turkish Airlines Cargo[75] Almaty, Delhi, IstanbulAtatürk, Tashkent, Lahore, Islamabad
UPS Airlines Cologne/Bonn, Mumbai
Yangtze River Express ShanghaiPudong

Traffic and statistics

Busiest international routes
Top 30 Busiest international routes to and from Suvarnabhumi Airport (2017)[76]
Rank Airport Passengers
handled 2017
% Change
2016/17
1 Hong Kong 3,971,531 0.73
2 Singapore 3,128,667 6.83
3 SeoulIncheon 2,629,925 14.94
4 DubaiInternational 2,025,049 16.98
5 TaipeiTaoyuan 1,613,265 25.3
6 ShanghaiPudong 1,417,765 7.27
7 Guangzhou 1,237,258 14.57
8 TokyoNarita 1,136,068 0.84
9 Kuala Lumpur-International 1,106,757 19.32
10 TokyoHaneda 1,094,946 3.71
11 BeijingCapital 1,087,251 11.2
12 Ho Chi Minh City 1,079,112 6.8
13 Doha 1,015,238 3.1
14 Delhi 976,066 13.4
15 Manila 934,133 18.6
16 Mumbai 860,350 12.6
17 Hanoi 832,943 3.5
18 LondonHeathrow 813,824 8.8
19 Yangon 794,713 2.5
20 Abu Dhabi 748,593 7.4
21 Phnom Penh 713,132 9.2
22 Sydney 653,574 6.7
23 Frankfurt 646,203 1.2
24 OsakaKansai 599,067 8.9
25 Busan 572,837 6.4
26 Kolkata 548,883 2
27 ParisCharles de Gaulle 514,516 3.4
28 Melbourne 487,980 6.5
29 Shenzhen 447,704 5.4
30 JakartaSoekarnoHatta 436,373 5.6
Top 10 Busiest international routes to and from Suvarnabhumi Airport by Cargo (2017)[76]
Rank Airport Tons of cargo
handled 2017
% Change
2016/17
1 Hong Kong 180,238 8.18
2 Singapore 87,636 12.15
3 TaipeiTaoyuan 79,495 8.65
4 TokyoNarita 74,979 1.69
5 SeoulIncheon 56,349 2.99
6 ShanghaiPudong 54,967 12.71
7 TokyoHaneda 40,616 25.89
8 Doha 33,872 29.38
9 DubaiInternational 32,840 5.61
10 Osaka-Kansai 26,780 8.89
Traffic by calendar year

Suvarnabhumi accounted for the largest share of air traffic at Thailand's airports in 2015, handling 52.9 million passengers, up by nearly 14 percent from the previous year despite its passenger capacity of only 45 million a year. International passengers passing through Suvarnabhumi grew 15.9 percent to 44.2 million, while domestic volume edged up 4.87 percent to 8.68 million. Aircraft movements showed a 9.50 percent increase to 317,066, consisting of 247,584 international (up 11 percent) and 69,482 domestic (up 4.41 percent).[77]

Passengers Change from previous year Movements Cargo
(tons)
Notes
2008 38,603,490 1,173,084
2009 40,500,224 04.9% 1,045,194
2010 42,784,967 05.6% 1,310,146
2011 47,910,744 012.0% 299,566
2012 53,002,328 010.6% 312,493 Source: Airports Council International[78]
In 2012, the government enjoined all low-cost airlines to move their hubs to DMK in October.
2013 51,363,451 011.92% 288,004 1,236,223
2014 46,423,352 09.62% 289,568 1,234,176
2015 52,902,110 013.96% 317,066 1,230,563
2016 55,892,428 05.65% 336,345 1,351,878
2017 60,860,704 08.9% 350,508 1,439,913
Bangkok Suvarnabhumi Airport Passenger Totals (millions)

Ground transportation

Airport Rail Link

The 30 billion baht Suvarnabhumi Airport Link was opened on 23 August 2010,[79] after multiple delays. The Airport Rail Link (ARL) is operated by SRTET, a subsidiary company of the State Railway of Thailand. The standard gauge line is 28.6 kilometres (17.8 mi) long and is elevated for most of its length, running mostly above existing regional railway lines and parallel to Motorway 7 and Si Rat Expressway. There is a short at-grade/underground segment as the line approaches the passenger terminal building of Suvarnabhumi Airport.

The ARL hours of service are 06.00 to 24.00.[80] The ARL has two interchange stations, namely Phaya Thai (changing for BTS Green Line services) and Makkasan (linking Phetchaburi station of the MRT Blue Line). In the future, the ARL will complement the SRT Red Line commuter service, which comprises two-meter gauge, dual-track lines. The ARL may also be extended from Phaya Thai to Don Mueang via Bang Sue, given that the old Don Mueang International Airport has now been reopened for civil aviation under a dual-airport policy.

Regional train

Meanwhile, SRT provides a suburban commuter train service between Lad Krabang (the nearest station to Suvarnabhumi on the East line, one station from the airport by Airport Rail Link) and the northern suburban city of Rangsit via downtown Bangkok and the old Don Mueang Airport. The train also connects with BTS and MRT at Phaya Thai and Phetchaburi stations respectively. A shuttle bus service linking the airport with Hua Takhe railway station is provided by BMTA. The train service is currently not as popular as the bus service because it requires a shuttle bus connection. The service will be stopped when the Airport Express Link is completed.[citation needed]

Bus

A free bus service connecting Suvarnabhumi Airport and Don Mueang Airport operates from 05.00 until midnight. Three air-conditioned city bus routes are operated by Bangkok Mass Transit Authority (BMTA) serve the airport's dedicated bus terminal. There are also direct buses between the airports operated by Airport Shuttle Bus.

Car

The airport has five main access routes. Among these the most convenient route is via the Bangkok Chon Buri Motorway (Motorway 7). Another main airport entrance is in Samut Prakan Province via the expressway from Bang Na to Bang Pakong.

The airport has provided five entrance routes. The main route is via the motorway in the north of Bangkok, directly connecting Bangkok's downtown and Chonburi Province, the industrial and harbor city in eastern Thailand. However, another main airport entrance is in Samut Prakan Province, connecting an elevated highway in the south of Bangkok from Bang Na to Bang Pakong.

Sky Lane

In December 2015, Airports of Thailand introduced Sky Lane (Thai: ), the cycling track around Suvarnabhumi airport perimeter. The cyclists can bring their bicycles and bike here for free. The entrance to Sky Lane is located in the northeastern corner of the airport area. The Sky Lane is controlled-access one-direction two-lane track built only for cycling, the riders can be ensured that they won't be bothered by any vehicle. The Sky Lane length is 23.5 km, made it the longest in Asia.[81] Sky Lanes facilities specially designed for cyclists include medical, shop, food & beverage, track, parking lot, rest area. The entrance gate is open from 06:00 to 18:00.[82]

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External links

Media related to Suvarnabhumi International Airport at Wikimedia Commons
Suvarnabhumi Airport travel guide from Wikivoyage


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